Monday, April 13, 2020

50th Anniversary: NASA's Most Successful Failure

                                 see caption
Apollo 13 Service Module, as seen from the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM), Aquarius, as the Service Module was jettisoned just hours before the Command Module, Odyssey, returned to Earth. This photograph shows the damage caused by the oxygen tank explosion.
(Image Sources: NASA, Wikipedia.org, By NASAScan by Kipp Teague - Apollo 13 Image Library (image link), Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=71871333)

By Glenn A. Walsh
Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

What could have been a second tragedy for America's Space Program became, what has been called by NASA Astronaut Jim Lovell, NASA's “successful failure.” NASA's planning and ingenuity, following the explosion of an oxygen tank as the Apollo 13 spacecraft, with astronauts Jim Lovell, Jack Swigert, and Fred Haise, cruised toward the Moon, ended the Moon mission but brought the astronauts home safely.

It was exactly 50 years ago, as of the posting of this blog-post, on Monday, 1970 April 13 at 10:07:53 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) / April 14, 3:07:53 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) that the Apollo 13 Service Module's No. 2 Oxygen Tank exploded, which also caused Oxygen Tank No. 1 to fail. As Daylight Saving Time did not begin until the last Sunday in April (April 26) in 1970, today this time equates to 11:07:53 p.m. Eastern Daylight Saving Time (EDT).

This occurred less than a year after the triumphant Apollo 11 mission, when the first two humans, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, landed and walked on the Moon on 1969 July 20. It also occurred nearly a half-year (in November of 1969) after the mission of Apollo 12, the second flight to land astronauts on the Moon. And, just a little more than two years after the Apollo 8 mission, when three astronauts successfully orbited another planetary body, the Earth's Moon, for the first time in history on Christmas Eve in 1968.

It also occurred a little more than three years after NASA's first tragedy, when astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee were killed when a flash-fire engulfed their Apollo 1 space capsule during a pre-launch ground test on 1967 January 27. In later years, NASA would experience two more tragedies when astronauts would die with the explosion of the Challenger Space Shuttle on 1986 January 28 and the re-entry dis-integration of the Space Shuttle Columbia on 2003 February 1.

The loss of oxygen to Outer Space, from the two oxygen tanks, meant that the Apollo 13 astronauts no longer had that oxygen to breathe or to generate spacecraft electricity. The Apollo 13 Service Module, where the explosion occurred, was no longer operable. The Command Module, which housed the three astronauts during the flight to the Moon, had to be shut-down to preserve its limited resources for re-entry when returning to Earth.

So, the astronauts had to use the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM) as a lifeboat for their trip back to Earth, as the LEM had fully-charged batteries and full oxygen tanks. With its own life systems, and now that the Moon mission had been scrubbed, the LEM was available for the mission of keeping the astronauts alive for the trip back to Earth.

NASA had anticipated the possible need to use the LEM for this purpose, but had always considered the need unlikely. Had the oxygen tank explosion occurred on the return trip to Earth, after the LEM had been used to reach the Moon and then jettisoned before leaving lunar orbit, the astronauts would have had no lifeboat and would have perished in Deep Space.

But, there were two problems. First, the LEM was designed to house two astronauts on the short trip to the lunar surface and accomodate them for two days. Now, the LEM would have to house three astronauts for several extra days.

Second, the LEM was not designed to return to Earth, as it had no shielding for re-entering the Earth's atmosphere. So, the astronauts could ride the LEM all the way to the Earth's atmosphere. But to return to our planet, they would have to move back into the Command Module (the only part of the spacecraft with shielding that would allow them to re-enter the atmosphere) and jettison the LEM and the Service Module.

Consequently, the trip back to Earth was a difficult one for the crew. There was limited electrical power, a shortage of drinking water, and the LEM cabin was chilly and damp.

The removal of carbon dioxide from the LEM cabin became a critical item of concern, as the Command Module's cartridges for removing carbon dioxide were not compatible with the LEM system. NASA ground controllers and the crew were able to improvise a solution to this problem.

To return the astronauts to Earth, NASA had two options. The “direct abort” return path would return the astronauts to Earth before reaching the Moon. But, it was not known whether the explosion had damaged the Service Module's main propulsion system, and whether the Service Module's fuel cells could last long enough to implement this option.

So, NASA controllers decided Apollo 13 should take the longer route, by swinging around the Moon before returning to Earth. Consequently as the spacecraft swung around the Moon, on 1970 April 14 at 7:21 p.m. EST / April 15, 0:21 UTC, Apollo 13 traveled farther from the Earth than any other spacecraft with a human crew: 248,655 statute miles / 400,171 kilometers from Earth, a record held to this day in the Guinness Book of World Records.

Following Apollo 13's return to Earth, NASA set-up an investigative review board to determine what happened and what changes should be made to prevent future such problems. The investigation found fault with pre-flight testing of the oxygen tanks and the fact that flammable Teflon and aluminum were used inside the tanks storing very combustible oxygen.

Oxygen tanks were re-designed for Apollo 14 and subsequent missions. Thermostats were upgraded. As stirring fans had to be removed, a third oxygen tank was added in a different location to isolate it from the other two tanks and the fuel cells; this would ensure that no tank went below half-full.

All electrical wiring would now be sheathed in stainless steel, and the fuel cell oxygen supply valves were redesigned. Monitoring systems, in both the spacecraft and in Mission Control, were beefed-up to allow for earlier alert of potential problems. An emergency supply of 5 gallons / 19 liters of water was added to the Command Module, and an emergency battery was added to the Service Module. And, transfers of electrical power between the Command and Lunar Excursion Modules were made easier.

Although Apollo 13 did not land on the Moon, some mission experiments were completed. One experiment allowed the Saturn V rocket third stage to slam into the Moon, as a good test of the nuclear-powered seismograph left on the Moon by Apollo 12 (the solar-powered seismograph left on the Moon by Apollo 11 did not survive the first two-week lunar night); previous missions had sent the third stage into solar orbit.

An experiment to measure the amount of atmospheric electrical phenomena during the launch to Earth orbit (Apollo 12 had been struck by lightning shortly after launch) indicated a greater risk during marginal weather. A series of photographs taken by Apollo 13 confirmed that that Earth cloud heights could be determined by synchronous satellites.

The Apollo 13 mission objective was to explore the Moon around the area known as Fra Mauro. This mission was re-assigned to Apollo 14.

For post-flight educational goals, some Command Module interior components were displayed at the Museum of Natural History and Science (now known as the Kentucky Science Center) in Louisville until the year 2000. The exterior shell of the Command Module was displayed at the Musée de l'air et de l'espace (English: Air and Space Museum) in Paris. Later, the Command Module shell and internal components were reassembled and are now on display at the Cosmosphere museum in Hutchinson, Kansas.

Internet Links to Additional Information ---

Apollo 13 -
Link 1 >>> https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/missions/apollo13.html
Link 2 >>> https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VIiZyBbZ2Dk
Link 3 >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_13

Related Blog Posts ---

"American Lunar Society Founder on 50th Anniversary: 1st Humans Walk on Moon !" Tue., 2019 July 16.

Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2019/07/american-lunar-society-founder-on-50th.html

 

"Tell NASA Your, or Your Family's, Apollo 11 Moon Landing Memories: Oral History Project." Wed., 2019 May 15.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2019/05/tell-nasa-your-or-your-familys-apollo.html

 

"American Lunar Society Founder on 50th Anniversary: 1st Humans Orbit Moon. Mon., 2018 Dec. 24.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2018/12/50th-anniversary-incredible-legacy-of.html

 

"Pittsburgh Museum Displays Historic Apollo 11 Moon Mission Artifacts. Wed., 2018 Oct. 24.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2018/10/pittsburgh-museum-displays-apollo-11.html

 

"50th Anniversary: NASA's 1st Tragedy of the Space Era." Fri., 2017 Jan. 27.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2017/01/50th-anniversary-nasas-1st-tragedy-of.html

 

"30th Anniversary: Challenger Space Shuttle Disaster." Thur., 2016 Jan. 28.

 Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2016/01/30th-anniversary-challenger-space.html

 

"NASA questions Apollo 13 commander's sale of list." Fri., 2012 Jan. 6.

Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2012/01/nasa-questions-apollo-13-commanders.html

 

"The Challenger Disaster Viewed at Pittsburgh's Buhl Planetarium." 2006 January.
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/bio/2006ChallengerBuhl.htm 

Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss.
              Monday, 2020 April 13.

                             Like This Post?  Please Share!

           More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>> https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < spacewatchtower@planetarium.cc >.

gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Informal Science Educator & Communicator:
http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/ >
Electronic Mail: < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/ >
SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: < http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/ >
Formerly Astronomical Observatory Coordinator & Planetarium Lecturer, original Buhl Planetarium & Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), Pittsburgh's science & technology museum from 1939 to 1991.
Formerly Trustee, Andrew Carnegie Free Library and Music Hall, Pittsburgh suburb of Carnegie, Pennsylvania.
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh:
  < http://www.planetarium.cc >
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago:
  < http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com >
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear:
  < http://johnbrashear.tripod.com >
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries:
  < http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc >

25 comments:

  1. Replies
    1. I was searching for loan to sort out my bills& debts, then i saw comments about Blank ATM Credit Card that can be hacked to withdraw money from any ATM machines around you . I doubted thus but decided to give it a try by contacting { cyberhackingcompany@gmail.com} they responded with their guidelines on how the card works. I was assured that the card can withdraw $5,000 instant per day & was credited with$50,000,000.00 so i requested for one & paid the delivery fee to obtain the card, after 24 hours later, i was shock to see the UPS agent in my resident with a parcel{card} i signed and went back inside and confirmed the card work's after the agent left. This is no doubts because i have the card & has made used of the card. This hackers are USA based hackers set out to help people with financial freedom!! Contact these email if you wants to get rich with this Via: cyberhackingcompany@gmail.com ..    

      Delete
  2. We are independent company Offering Loan at a cheapest interest(2%). We guarantee any kind of Loan, Government finance Project and Investor Project. etc If you are interested Kindly get back to me for more information via Email: collinsguzmanfundings@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  3. Hello, Do you need a quick Loan?
    I'm Susan Benson I'm a lender and also a financial consultant.

    In view of the economic stagnation the world is going through as a result of the emerging Corona-virus disease (COVID-19) a lot of people are facing untimely financial challenges. And with the presence of cash surplus in our institution, we aim to speed up money circulation by financing clients within and outside Europe with a loan.

    If you need an urgent loan to start up a business, buy a house or a car, or You need a loan for other personal reasons? I want you to contact my firm. We render all kind of loan services both secured and unsecured loans. If you are reading this and you know that you need Financial support, you can just write to us via Email: sunshinefinancialgroupinc@gmail.com or Message me directly on WhatsApp via: +447903159998 & receive a response in an instant.

    We are a comprehensive financial service company and we are committed to help you improve your long-term and short-term financial goals because your financial stability is our ultimate goal.

    Features & Benefit;
    * Convenience - You can Apply for a loan anytime, anywhere.
    * Flexible Amount - You decide how much you want to borrow.
    * Fast Direct Funding - Receive your loan within 24 hours after approval.  
    * Flexible interest rate of 3.0%.
    * High Approval Rates
    * You Get The Chance To Select the Repayment Date, either weekly, monthly or yearly for a duration of 1-30 years.
    * Simple online application.
    * Personalized guidance and expertise.
    * No hidden Charges

    A lot of people are finding it so difficult to get a loan from their local banks or other financial institutes due to some reasons.

    If you really need solution to your financial challenges, just write to my firm we will help you out with a loan. We have helped numerous number of individuals and organizations who have been facing financial difficulty all over the world. When you apply with us, you’re applying with a trusted company that cares about your financial needs, our upmost Priority is your financial stability and you’ll be taken care of  through the whole process.

    For more information about our loan offer, kindly send us your loan request via:
    Email: sunshinefinancialgroupinc@gmail.com OR;
    WhatsApp: +447903159998

    ReplyDelete
  4. HOW I GOT MY LOAN FROM THIS GREAT COMPANY

    Hello my dear people, I am Linda McDonald, currently living in Austin Texas, USA. I am a widow at the moment with three kids and i was stuck in a financial situation in April 2020 and i needed to refinance and pay my bills. I tried seeking loans from various loan firms both private and corporate but never with success, and most banks declined my credit ,do not full prey to those hoodlums at there that call them self-money lender they are all scam , all they want is your money and you will not hear from them again they have done it to me twice before I met Mr. David Wilson the most interesting part of it is that my loan was transfer to me within 74hours so I will advise you to contact Mr. David if you are interested in getting loan and you are sure you can pay him back on time you can contact him via email……… (davidwilsonloancompany4@gmail.com) No credit check, no cosigner with just 2% interest rate and better repayment plans and schedule if you must contact any firm with reference to securing a loan without collateral then contact Mr. David Wilson today for your loan.

    They offer all kind of categories of loan .
    Short term loan (5_10years)
    Long term loan (20_40)
    Media term loan (10_20)
    They offer loan like
    Home loan............., Business loan........ Debt loan.......
    Student loan.........., Business startup loan
    Business loan......., Company loan.............. etc
    Email..........( davidwilsonloancompany4@gmail.com)
    When it comes to financial crisis and loan then David Wilson loan financial is the place to go please just tell him I Mrs. Linda McDonald direct you Good Luck.......................

    ReplyDelete
  5. Rewari escorts provide you full enjoyment of body massage through Rewari call girls. You can avail this opportunity only on Rewari escort service.call girls in rewari

    ReplyDelete
  6. Hello All ▲▲▲ I am Dianna Kent and I live in Nevada, U.S .I am a full member of the Illuminati brotherhood, and am among the 1252 lodge. ▲▲▲ Iwas ordained by the Grand-master to go out to the world and bringmore members to the Illuminati, ▲ so I was requested to get 400Recruits for the brotherhood, I have 210 new recruits already. I amlooking for only 190 more to go,▲I am sure you want to be amongthe 190 people that will be earning $500,000 monthly and a brandnew car, ▲so add me up now so we can achieve this great chanceof being rich ▲. You get to live your dream life on earth filled with luxury. so i urge you not to miss thisGreat opportunity becoming what you long wished for life email: illuminatitemple6634@gmail.com‬ or Whats-app +1(854) 220-5771 for guidance

    ReplyDelete
  7. Hello All ▲▲▲ I am Dianna Kent and I live in Nevada, U.S .I am a full member of the Illuminati brotherhood, and am among the 1252 lodge. ▲▲▲ Iwas ordained by the Grand-master to go out to the world and bringmore members to the Illuminati, ▲ so I was requested to get 400Recruits for the brotherhood, I have 210 new recruits already. I amlooking for only 190 more to go,▲I am sure you want to be amongthe 190 people that will be earning $500,000 monthly and a brandnew car, ▲so add me up now so we can achieve this great chanceof being rich ▲. You get to live your dream life on earth filled with luxury. so i urge you not to miss thisGreat opportunity becoming what you long wished for life email: illuminatitemple6634@gmail.com‬ or Whats-app +1(854) 220-5771 for guidance

    ReplyDelete
  8. great content
    Buy Afghani Hawaiian Alaskan Thunder Fuck Blue Berry Purple Kush

    Afghan Hawaiian is a Sativa dominant hybrid (70% indica/30% Sativa) strain created as a potent cross between the hugely popular UK Cheese X Lavender strains. This dank bud boasts a moderately high THC level ranging from 18-22% on average and a myriad of both Indica and Sativa effects. Users describe the high as having an immediately uplifting onset that leaves you aroused, creative, and slightly dizzy. You’ll feel happy and euphoric before falling into a state of deep relaxation without loss of functionality. Due to these potent effects, Afghan Hawaiian is said to be an ideal strain for treating patients suffering from conditions such as neurological disorders and spasticity as well as muscle spasms and chronic pain. Afghan Hawaiian buds have small dense round popcorn-shaped neon green nugs with light gold undertones and translucent amber hairs.

    ReplyDelete
  9. Am Laura Mildred by name, i was diagnosed with Herpes 4 years ago i lived in pain with the knowledge that i wasn't going to ever be well again i contacted so many herbal doctors on this issue and wasted a large sum of money but my condition never got better i was determined to get my life back so one day i saw Mr. Morrison Hansen post on how Dr. Emu saved him from Herpes with herbal medicine i contacted Dr. Emu on his Email: Emutemple@gmail.com we spoke on the issue i told him all that i went through and he told me not to worry that everything will be fine again so he prepared the medicine and send it to me and told me how to use it, after 14 days of usage I went to see the doctor for test,then the result was negative, am the happiest woman on earth now thanks to Dr. Emu God bless you. Email him at: Emutemple@gmail.com Call or Whats-app him: +2347012841542

    ReplyDelete
  10. Am Laura Mildred by name, i was diagnosed with Herpes 4 years ago i lived in pain with the knowledge that i wasn't going to ever be well again i contacted so many herbal doctors on this issue and wasted a large sum of money but my condition never got better i was determined to get my life back so one day i saw Mr. Morrison Hansen post on how Dr. Emu saved him from Herpes with herbal medicine i contacted Dr. Emu on his Email: Emutemple@gmail.com we spoke on the issue i told him all that i went through and he told me not to worry that everything will be fine again so he prepared the medicine and send it to me and told me how to use it, after 14 days of usage I went to see the doctor for test,then the result was negative, am the happiest woman on earth now thanks to Dr. Emu God bless you. Email him at: Emutemple@gmail.com Whats-app or Call him +2347012841542 

    ReplyDelete
  11. God bless Dr. USELU for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS since 2018 and I was taking my medications, I wasn’t satisfied i needed to get the HERPES out of my system, I searched about some possible cure for HERPES i saw a comment about Dr. USELU , how he cured HERPES with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine within 3 days. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 2weeks later i was cured from HERPES contact him via email (dr.uselucaregiver@gmail.com) once again thanks to you Dr. USELU cure the flowing virus, contact his email or add him on whatsapp (+2347052898482) cancer cure
    diabetes cure
    ringing ear
    herpes cure
    warts cure
    HPV cure
    HIV cure
    get your ex back
    pregnancy herbal medicine
    Hepatitis   

    ReplyDelete
  12. Join the Great Sacred Illuminati Cult to option wealth and protection. Are you a business individual, politician, musician,footballer e.t.c? Do you want to be a famous artist or an actor and be powerful in the world? Become a member and receive the sum of $700,000.00USD, A house to live and also receive $200,000.00 monthly as membership benefit, get funded with money to start up business. This is real and no human sacrifices/soul selling so inbox me if you're interested +1(364)202-5427

    ReplyDelete
  13. Join the Great Sacred Illuminati Cult to option wealth and protection. Are you a business individual, politician, musician,footballer e.t.c? Do you want to be a famous artist or an actor and be powerful in the world? Become a member and receive the sum of $700,000.00USD, A house to live and also receive $200,000.00 monthly as membership benefit, get funded with money to start up business. This is real and no human sacrifices/soul selling so inbox me if you're interested +1(364)202-5427

    ReplyDelete
  14. Join the Great Sacred Illuminati Cult to option wealth and protection. Are you a business individual, politician, musician,footballer e.t.c? Do you want to be a famous artist or an actor and be powerful in the world? Become a member and receive the sum of $700,000.00USD, A house to live and also receive $200,000.00 monthly as membership benefit, get funded with money to start up business. This is real and no human sacrifices/soul selling so inbox me if you're interested +1(364)202-5427

    ReplyDelete
  15. LIFE CHANGING OPPORTUNITY TODAY: DONT MISS OUT!!!
    Make the right and positive choice for the opportunity to be among the 10 lucky persons that the great USA Illuminati wants to admit and make wealthy, famous, rich, be entitled to a million dollar ($2,000,000) reward and above all given maximum protection against anything harmful to human existence .
    If interested email us via: joinilluminati21@gmail.com or contact us via SMS or WhatsApp with the following mobile contact +1 (364 ) 202-5427

    ReplyDelete
  16. Thanks to Doctor Razor for the Great miraculous work he did in my life with his herbal remedy. I have been living with this virus and I have shared with my partners my situation because they deserve to have a choice of whether they want to change being with me or not. I unfortunately did not have a choice in this matter leaving me vulnerable and now faced with this virus for the rest of my life or until a cure was discovered.I refused to take the Medical drugs my PCD have told me to take, I surrendered to my fate, because I was careless. Late on at night, Feb 13 2017, I came across Doctor Razor herbal medicine. I browsed about the authenticity of This Doctor, I got to see several Testimonies regarding his works from people he had helped with his medicine. i reached out to him and told him my problems, after we spoke he promised to help me out. I started using his herbal medicine which he sent to me Via the Courier Delivery, and asked me to take the herbal medicine for 18 days. which i did. I am delighted to let you all know that I Got cured of Herpes Virus, after the Medical Doctor had confirmed this with the test results, when I went for a medical check up after completing the Herbal Dosage Of 18 days. Doctor Razor's Website : https://herbalistrazorherb.wixsite.com/drrazorherbalhome or Reach out to Doctor razor via email : drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com
    WhatsApp +2349065420442

    ReplyDelete
  17. Natural herbs have cured so many illness that drugs and injection can’t cure. I've seen the great importance of natural herbs and the wonderful work they have done in people's lives. i read people's testimonies online on how they were cured of HERPES, HIV, diabetics etc by Dr Edes herbal medicine, so i decided to contact the doctor because i know nature has the power to heal anything. I was diagnosed with Herpes for the past 3 years but Dr Edes cured me with his herbs and i referred my aunt and her husband to him immediately because they were both suffering from Herpes but to God be the glory, they were cured too .I know is hard to believe but am a living testimony. There is no harm trying herbs, Thanks. Write him on WhatsApp on +2348151937428. @dr_edes_remedies deals with
    (1)Alzheimer virus
    (2)Cancer
    (3)HIV
    (4)Herpes
    (5)Genital warts
    (6)ALS
    (7)Virginal infection
    (8)HPV
    (9)Hepatitis
    (10)Asthma
    Email him on dredeshome@gmail.com
    https://dredesherbalhome.weebly.com/product-order.html
    https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCWhBHvtpo772EWAEdsFWmWQ

    ReplyDelete
  18. A LITTLE ACT OF KINDNESS CAN MAKE YOU REMEMBERED FOR A LONG TIME. GOD BLESS THE GREAT MIND BEHIND CREATING THIS READING PLATFORM. My problem with herpes type 2 has caused me many traumas, especially in my sexual life. I was so afraid of infecting my Boyfriend, I suffered the embarrassment of visiting dermatologists queries hundreds of times. Unfortunately, they did not find a definitive solution to my problem.The solution came from the least expected place By reading in a forum on the subject, mentioned a method for eliminating herpes simplex virus 2. Many people had tried, with excellent and quick results.I had nothing to lose so I decided to use this method to eliminate my herpes 2. spent 18 days using this method and my herpes type 2 completely disappeared. I recommend this method to all those infected with herpes virus, who want to eliminate the herpes from their body forever. Contact Doctor Razor via his Email : drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com , I recommend his herbal herpes healing method. you can visit his website : https://herbalistrazorherb.wixsite.com/drrazorherbalhome, Whatsapp or Call Doctor Razor Via +2349065420442

    ReplyDelete
  19. This is a good news to my life and my generations, i am so proud of the great illuminati brotherhood, i want to say a big thanks to the illuminati brotherhood in world, i have tried so many times to join the illuminati brotherhood, so that i can live a better life, but i was not lucky to meet the right people that will help me join this illuminati, i have been scammed so many times, and i was promise that i will receive my benefits as a member, all was scam and i was not happy about it, because i read in the internet that so many great men and women are all illuminati members, this was the reason i never stopped, because i know that when i meet the right illuminati, my life will be changed for good, because of this i still believe in the illuminati and continue search on the internet, i never give up because i have the hope and believe, i was born to make it in life, because my dad once told me that if you give up in life, life will also give up on you, because of this i never one give up, on till i meet the right agent of illuminati, that directed me on how to join the illuminati, brothers and sisters i wan t to use this opportunity to tell everyone that it is totally tree to join the illuminati, you don't need to spend any money to join, it is free don't pay any money to join illuminati, because i was scammed so many times, the real illuminati don't ask for money to join, when i was totally initiated, i was given so many benefits, in my induction day i was given a cash of $2,000,000,00 ring of protection to protect my self and my family, Car of my choice and mansion of my choice and etc, Brothers and Sisters who are interested to join the illuminati and you have been scammed so many times, don't give up i will now direct you to the real illuminati official email: churchofilluminatiwealth@gmail.com or you can Call/Text WhatsApp Number +1 (508) 819 2672 You must have to know this that it is totally free to join the illuminati brotherhood.

    ReplyDelete
  20. It's a pleasure for me to write this testimony about this wonderful thing that happened to me last week on how i got my peripheral artery disease (PAD) cured, i have been reading so-many post of some people who were cured of peripheral artery disease (PAD), but i never believed them, I was hurt and depressed so I was too curious and wanted to try dr emu when i contact him, he assured me 100% that he will heal me, i pleaded with him to help me out, it's a great success that he healed just as he promised, he told me that in three days time that i should go and check on my peripheral artery disease (PAD) status, I was floored that when i went to the hospital to check of my status that i was peripheral artery disease (PAD) negative, i never thought possible that dr emu can do miracles, i never really believed in magic but I played along with a little hope and faith and after everything but dr emu changed my life and made me a true believer you can contact him emutemple@gmail.com  emutemple@yahoo.com or whatsapp Number: +2347012841542 website: https://emutemple.wordpress.com/ he said that he is also specialize on the following diseases: HERPES, HIV, ALS, HPV, DIABETES, HEPATITIS B, CANCER, SICKLE CELL, VIRGINAL DRYNESS, And Bring Back Your Ex back.

    ReplyDelete
  21. Murad Group Of Companies
    Based on your specific goals and risk tolerance, we will help your company or institution build several international strategies that are customized for your short- and long-term objectives. Customer`s satisfaction is set-up as our priority, each single customer of the Murad Group Of Companies enjoys the flexibility in sourcing, competitive pricing, on-time deliveries, fast-true-continuous information, a dedicated professional team, and reliability while they cooperate with Murad Group Of Companies Having a warehouse and fulfillment service in Turkey and across continents has allowed us to grow our unique customer base seamlessly. By having we take care of our fulfillment services, it allows us to focus on growing our company instead of shipping orders. Our personalized service and support are ALWAYS top notch.We take food handling and proper storage very seriously. As an FDA approved facility, extreme security measures and training are provided in properly handling all food product that enters and leaves our facility. Safeguarding our short- or long-term product from contamination is critical. Our Food Safety Plan encompasses training in checking product temperature, food handling, record keeping, and security.
    Email:-contact@muradgroupofcompanies.com
    Website:-https://muradgroupofcompanies.com/
    Contact no:-+1 (260) 632 7854

    ReplyDelete