Sunday, April 26, 2020

Centennial: 'Great Debate' on Scale of Universe

ESO-VLT-Laser-phot-33a-07.jpg
Image from Earth of the center (laser points directly at center) of our Milky Way Galaxy, which was once thought to comprise the entirety of the Universe. This image was taken by European Southern Observatory astronomer Yuri  Beletsky from Paranal, Chile on 2007 July 21.
(Image Sources: Wikipedia.org, By ESO/Y. Beletsky - https://web.archive.org/web/20081121184421/http://www.eso.org/gallery/v/ESOPIA/Paranal/phot-33a-07.tif.html, CC BY 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=7398904)

By Glenn A. Walsh
Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

Just a century ago, the size of the Universe, and our place in the Milky Way Galaxy, were still largely not understood. One-hundred years ago today, on Monday Afternoon, 1920 April 26, two prominent astronomers debated these issues during the annual meeting of the National Academy of Sciences.

In what came to be known as the “Great Debate,” the two participants were Harlow Shapley and Heber D. Curtis. The debate lectures were delivered in the afternoon, while a panel discussion on the issues occurred that evening. The following year, the debate was published in the May issue of the Bulletin of the National Research Council, including rebuttals to the arguments in the previous year's debate.

The 1920 debate did not follow a normal debate structure. Rather, the two participants simply gave lectures on their respective viewpoints on the issues, which included responses to the other's viewpoints, but no rebuttals were given during the actual debate. At the time, both were seeking the directorship of prominent astronomical observatories, so part of the motivation of the speakers, particularly Harlow Shapley, was to impress the respective university administrations and boards of trustees.

Harlow Shapley, at the time, had been working at the Mount Wilson Observatory in southern California since 1914. In 1921, he would become Director of the Harvard College Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

As Harvard College Observatory Director, on Wednesday Evening, 1941 November 19, Dr. Shapley gave the keynote address at the dedication of a rather unique 10-inch Siderostat-type Refractor Telescope, in the public observatory of the original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center – Pittsburgh's science and technology museum from 1939 to 1991). A strong supporter of amateur astronomy, in the 1940s he also helped to establish a national organization for amateur astronomers, The Astronomical League.

At the time of the Great Debate, Heber Curtis was working at the Lick Observatory in northern California. Starting at Lick Observatory in 1902, he surveyed nebulae, which would be an integral issue in the Great Debate, particularly the nature of spiral nebulae.

The study of nebulae had been started by Lick Observatory Director James E. Keeler, when Dr. Keeler had returned to Lick Observatory as newly appointed Director in 1898. He had previously been Director of the Western University of Pennsylvania's Allegheny Observatory. However, Dr. Keeler suddenly died in 1900, leading Dr. Curtis to take-on his study of spiral nebulae. Later in 1920, Dr. Curtis would become Director of the newly-built, three-dome Allegheny Observatory, operated by the renamed University of Pittsburgh.

The nature of spiral nebulae observed by astronomers near the end of the 19th century was hotly debated by scientists of that era. Some thought the spiral nebulae were simply nearby gas clouds. Other scientists believed that they were distant “island universes,” or galaxies similar to our own Milky Way Galaxy.

For the 1920 annual meeting of the National Academy of Sciences, a debate was scheduled on the issue (actually, this was one of 14 issues disputed during the debate). Heber Curtis, who had been studying nebulae, was convinced that the spiral nebulae were independent galaxies outside of our Milky Way Galaxy. Further, Dr. Curtis conjectured that the Earth's Solar System was near the center of our rather small Milky Way Galaxy.

Dr. Curtis said, during the debate, "if the spirals are island universes it would seem reasonable and most probable to assign to them dimensions of the same order as our galaxy. If, however, their dimensions are as great as 300,000 light years [as Shapley asserted for our galaxy], the island universes must be placed at such enormous distances that it would be necessary to assign what seem impossibly great absolute magnitudes to the novae which have appeared in these objects."

Harlow Shapley, who spoke first, argued that the spiral nebulae were gas clouds within our Milky Way Galaxy, and that our galaxy was (or nearly was) the totality of the Universe. During the debate, he also stated, "Recent studies of clusters and related objects seem to me to leave no alternative to the belief that the galactic system is at least ten times greater in diameter - at least a thousand times greater in volume - than recently supposed." He also countered Dr. Curtis saying that our Solar System was really far from the center of our much larger galaxy / Universe.

During a graduate work fellowship at Princeton University, Dr. Shapley had been studying globular clusters. As the common observation at that time was that globular clusters were more concentrated in one-half of the sky, he concluded that this part of the sky included the center of the galaxy. By using Cepheid variable stars as a sort-of measuring-rod, he determined that our galaxy was much larger than most astronomers of the time thought, and our Sun was further from the center of the galaxy, as well.

As Dr. Shapley was a younger, ambitious astronomer, Dr. Curtis was a little older and more established in the astronomy field. Dr. Curtis maintained the current opinion of most astronomers that our galaxy was rather small, with our Sun close to the center of the galaxy. He demonstrated that novae in our galaxy were much brighter than novae seen in spiral nebulae, concluding that the spiral nebulae were separate and distinct galaxies in their own right. He disputed Dr. Shapley's larger size of the Milky Way Galaxy, as he did not believe that Cepheid variable stars derived valid stellar distances.

Nothing conclusive came from the Great Debate. The data used by both astronomers were not of a high enough quality to determine the true nature of spiral nebulae.

In later years, it was determined that both scientists were correct in some matters and wrong in other matters. Dr. Curtis was correct that the Milky Way was just one of billions of galaxies in our huge Universe. However, Dr. Shapley was correct that the Milky Way galaxy is much larger than originally believed and our Sun was far from the center of the Milky Way.

By 1924, Edwin Hubble, who had started working at Mount Wilson Observatory in 1919, was able to prove that the spiral nebulae were actually galaxies, far from our own Milky Way Galaxy. Using the newly completed 100-inch Hooker Reflector Telescope (then, the world's largest telescope), he was able to identify Cepheid variable stars (used by astronomers to determine stellar distances) in several spiral nebulae, including Andromeda and Triangulum.

Dr. Hubble was able to demonstrate that these Cepheids were much too far away to be part of our own galaxy, and hence, must be in another galaxy. Consequently, he fundamentally changed the scientific view of the Universe, as well as ending the debate, in Dr. Curtis' favor, which had been the focus of the 1920 Great Debate.

About a decade later, Dr. Shapley was proven correct regarding the fact that our Milky Way Galaxy is much larger than originally believed. And, that our Solar System is far from the center of the galaxy.

Robert J. Trumpler had proven the existence of interstellar absorption. Combined with a better understanding of stellar distances and distribution of globular clusters, it became clear that our Sun was not near the center of the Milky Way Galaxy.

Under the auspices of the George Ellery Hale Lecture series, Dr. Shapley and Dr. Curtis delivered the lectures in the Baird Auditorium of the Smithsonian Institution’s Museum of Natural History, in Washington DC. The National Academy of Science's own building in Washington was not finished until 1924; from then on, annual meetings occurred in the Academy's building.

The 1920 Great Debate became the first of several such great debates regarding current issues in astronomy. To mark the 75th anniversary of the original Great Debate, other such great debates were held in the 1990s, and they continued to occur in the Baird Auditorium. These other great debates occurred in 1995 (Distance Scale to Gamma-ray Bursts), 1996 (again, regarding the Scale of the Universe), and 1998 (Nature of the Universe).

Internet Links to Additional Information ---

Internet links to more detailed information on the Great Debate:
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/bio/greatdebate.html

Heber D. Curtis: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heber_Doust_Curtis

Harlow Shapley: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#hshapley

Edwin Hubble: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_Hubble

James E. Keeler: Link >>> http://johnbrashear.tripod.com/bio/KeelerJ.htm

Harlow Shapley and Buhl Planetarium Assist in Creation of The Astronomical League:
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium4.tripod.com/AstroLeague.html

Related Blog Posts ---

"100 Years Ago: Shapley Discovers True Magnitude of Milky Way & True Location of Earth in Galaxy." 2018 Jan. 8.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2018/01/100-years-ago-shapley-discovers-true.html

 

"75th Anniversary: America's 5th Public Observatory." 2016 Nov. 19.

Harlow Shapley gave keynote address at the dedication of the rather unique 10-inch Siderostat-type Refractor Telescope at the original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science / Buhl Science Center, Pittsburgh's science and technology museum from 1939 to 1991.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2016/11/75th-anniversary-americas-5th-public.html


Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss.
              Sunday, 2020 April 26.

                             Like This Post?  Please Share!

           More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>> https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < spacewatchtower@planetarium.cc >.

gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Informal Science Educator & Communicator:
http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/ >
Electronic Mail: < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/ >
SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: < http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/ >
Formerly Astronomical Observatory Coordinator & Planetarium Lecturer, original Buhl Planetarium & Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), Pittsburgh's science & technology museum from 1939 to 1991.
Formerly Trustee, Andrew Carnegie Free Library and Music Hall, Pittsburgh suburb of Carnegie, Pennsylvania.
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh:
  < http://www.planetarium.cc >
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago:
  < http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com >
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear:
  < http://johnbrashear.tripod.com >
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries:
  < http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc >

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  15. Am Laura Mildred by name, i was diagnosed with Herpes 4 years ago i lived in pain with the knowledge that i wasn't going to ever be well again i contacted so many herbal doctors on this issue and wasted a large sum of money but my condition never got better i was determined to get my life back so one day i saw Mr. Morrison Hansen post on how Dr. Emu saved him from Herpes with herbal medicine i contacted Dr. Emu on his Email: Emutemple@gmail.com we spoke on the issue i told him all that i went through and he told me not to worry that everything will be fine again so he prepared the medicine and send it to me and told me how to use it, after 14 days of usage I went to see the doctor for test,then the result was negative, am the happiest woman on earth now thanks to Dr. Emu God bless you. Email him at: Emutemple@gmail.com Whats-app or Call him +2347012841542 

    ReplyDelete

  16. I got my already programmed and blanked ATM card to withdraw the maximum of $1,000 daily for a maximum of 20 days. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week and I have used it to get $20,000. Mike Fisher Hackers is giving out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it is something nice and he is not like other scam pretending to have the blank ATM cards. And no one gets caught when using the card. get yours from Mike *email: int.hackers002@gmail.com you can also call or whatsapp us Contact us today for more enlightenment +1(765) 705-0044

    ReplyDelete
  17. BEWARE MANY OF THESE POSTS ON HOW TO JOIN ILLUMINATI, THEY ARE NOT REAL,I WAS SCAM TWICE TRYING TO JOIN ILLUMINATI. THEY PROMISE ME MONEY, CAR AND HOUSE BUT IT WAS ALL SCAM I LOST OVER $8587 UNTIL A FRIEND OF MINE FROM ARIZONA PHOENIX DIRECT ME TO THE REAL AGENT WERE I FINALLY BECOME ILLUMINATI MEMBER AND $900,000.00 USD WAS GIVEN TO ME AS A NEW MEMBER,PLEASE BEWARE OF SO MANY POST IF YOU WANT TO BE RICH AND FAMOUS THEN WhatsApp or call THE REAL AGENT CARLOS SCOTT via whatsApp: +1 (315) 316-1521 FOR MORE INFO AND HOW TO BE INITIATED

    ReplyDelete
  18. God bless Dr. USELU for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS since 2018 and I was taking my medications, I wasn’t satisfied i needed to get the HERPES out of my system, I searched about some possible cure for HERPES i saw a comment about Dr. USELU , how he cured HERPES with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine within 3 days. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 2weeks later i was cured from HERPES contact him via email (dr.uselucaregiver@gmail.com) once again thanks to you Dr. USELU cure the flowing virus, contact his email or add him on whatsapp (+2347052898482) cancer cure
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  19. Hello, are you interested in joining the great Illuminati brotherhood where you can become rich ,famous, powers, and wealth, for the rest of your life ? Benefit given to new members who join the Illuminati brotherhood $2,000,000 into your bank account...... $800,000 weekly salary.........
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    ReplyDelete
  20. Hello viewers are here to share my testimony on how I joined the brotherhood of illuminati. 3weeks back when I wanted to join the brotherhood I was fraud and scammed by the fake people using the website until I met a friend here called MR Scott ..who helped me to become a member of the great brotherhood of illuminati . today I can boost my money .If you are interested and you need the help of my helper CALL or WHATSAPP him on: +1(315)316-1521
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    ReplyDelete

  21. Hello, are you interested in joining the great Illuminati brotherhood where you can become rich ,famous, powers, and wealth, for the rest of your life ? Benefit given to new members who join the Illuminati brotherhood $2,000,000 into your bank account...... $800,000 weekly salary.........
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    ReplyDelete
  22. HAVE YOU BEEN IN SEARCH FOR GENUINE HACKER'S ONLINE?. HAVE YOU LOST YOUR MONEY TO BINARY OPTION SCAM OR ANY ONLINE SCAM WHATSOEVER?. WELL, YOU HAVE FOUND REDEMPTION IN ASORE CORP.
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    ReplyDelete
  23. HELLO EVERYONE I WAS BROWSING THE INTERNET AND I SAW A LOT OF WRONG QUOTE CONCERNING THE ILLUMINATI SOCIETY, I FELT BAD ABOUT IT, I WANT TO LET YOU KNOW FEW THINGS ABOUT THE ILLUMINATI SOCIETY. FIRST, I JOIN THE ILLUMINATI SOCIETY THROUGH THE HELP OF AN AGENT SOMEONE INTRODUCED ME TO ONLINE, AFTER YEARS OF DETERMINATION TO BE A MEMBER. BEING A MEMBER OF THE ILLUMINATI YOUR WEALTH IS GUARANTEE, YOU WILL BE PROTECTED, FAME, POWER INFLUENCE E.T.C ALL THESE THEY WILL GIVE YOU. ONE THING I WANT TO CORRECT IS THAT THE ILLUMINATI DON'T PAY MEMBER ANY SALARY, IF YOU ARE NEWLY INITIATED THEY WILL GIVE YOU THE SEED OF WEALTH AND BLESS YOU WITH WISDOM, POWER, INFLUENCE E.T.C YOU NEED TO BE SUCCESSFUL THE SEED OF WEALTH IS THE ONLY MONEY THE ILLUMINATI SOCIETY GIVE TO THEIR MEMBER, WITH THIS YOU CAN START ANYTHING WITH THE MONEY AND YOU WILL BE SUCCESSFUL. ANOTHER THING IS THAT THE SOCIETY HAVE SPECIAL BLESSING FOR POLITICIANS AND SUPER STARS. BEING AN ILLUMINATI MEMBER IS A PERSONAL DECISION, THE SOCIETY DON'T FORCE OR BEG PEOPLE TO JOIN THEM. I JOINED BECAUSE I WANT TO, NO BODY FORCE ME AND AM VERY HAPPY TO BE A MEMBER TODAY BECAUSE THEY HAVE CONTRIBUTED GREATLY TO MY LIFE BY MAKING ME ONE OF THE LEADING BUSINESS MAN IN THE WORLD. IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN JOINING THE ILLUMINATI SOCIETY CALL/WHATSAPP Mr BERRY CASTLE on +1 (364)202-5427. or email joinilluminati21@gmail.com HE WAS THE ONE THAT HELP ME AND I PROMISE I WILL FOREVER BE GRATEFUL

    ReplyDelete

  24. Hello, are you interested in joining the great Illuminati brotherhood where you can become rich ,famous, powers, and wealth, for the rest of your life ? Benefit given to new members who join the Illuminati brotherhood $2,000,000 into your bank account...... $800,000 weekly salary.........
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    ReplyDelete

  25. My ex ruined me broke due to his incessant extravagant spending , I found myself in a big mess. I talked to a loan company and I was told that they can't lend me loan . I was devastated, that's put me into a lot of debt. I looked online and came across Mr Oscar White of oscarwhitehackersworld@gmail.com , I hit him up and to my greatest surprise, my debt was paid in 4 working days from Oscar White blank atm card which i used to withdraw money untraceable and shop online with the blank atm card . I was so amazed and it didn't cost me too much to get the card and today have made up to $50,000.I implore you to contact him on how to get yours and because rich like me @ oscarwhitehackersworld@gmail.com or whats-app +1(323)-362-2310.No doubt he's the best out there and your problems will be solved!

    ReplyDelete
  26. Hello, are you interested in joining the great Illuminati brotherhood where you can become rich ,famous, powers, and wealth, for the rest of your life ? Benefit given to new members who join the Illuminati brotherhood $2,000,000 into your bank account...... $800,000 weekly salary.........
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    ReplyDelete
  27. If you’re lucky enough to read this, be rest assured that your life is in for a major upgrade and turn around that will leave your peers, colleagues, and family members astounded and amazed by your incredible success story. Ladies and gents I present to you the genuine "ILLUMINATI," If you’re fed up with the current situation in your life and are prepared to take a major leap of faith with us I assure you that you will not be disappointed. Kindly inbox Agent Mr Abraham on whats-app mobile now @ +1(520)367-0578 or via email @ nationsilluminati4@gmail.com.. Everyone is highly welcome 🔺



     

    ReplyDelete
  28. HELLO, ARE YOU SEEKING FOR RICHES, FAME, POWER, KNOWLEDGE, PROTECTION, WISDOM, AND PROSPERITY. Are you a business Man or Woman, Politician, Musician, Pastor, Lawyer, Actor, Actress, Banker, Footballer, Model, Graduate, Student, Engineer, etc, And you want to live that dream life
    DON'T MISS THIS OPPORTUNITY, The Great Illuminati Brotherhood will make you Rich, Powerful, famous, and with long life. You can achieve all your dreams and heart desire by being a member of the Illuminati brotherhood, Long life, and prosperity here on Earth.
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    ReplyDelete
  29. Hello, are you interested in joining the great Illuminati brotherhood where you can become rich ,famous, powers, and wealth, for the rest of your life ? Benefit given to new members who join the Illuminati brotherhood $2,000,000 into your bank account...... $800,000 weekly salary.........
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    ReplyDelete
  30. Thanks to Doctor Razor for the Great miraculous work he did in my life with his herbal remedy. I have been living with this virus and I have shared with my partners my situation because they deserve to have a choice of whether they want to change being with me or not. I unfortunately did not have a choice in this matter leaving me vulnerable and now faced with this virus for the rest of my life or until a cure was discovered.I refused to take the Medical drugs my PCD have told me to take, I surrendered to my fate, because I was careless. Late on at night, Feb 13 2017, I came across Doctor Razor herbal medicine. I browsed about the authenticity of This Doctor, I got to see several Testimonies regarding his works from people he had helped with his medicine. i reached out to him and told him my problems, after we spoke he promised to help me out. I started using his herbal medicine which he sent to me Via the Courier Delivery, and asked me to take the herbal medicine for 18 days. which i did. I am delighted to let you all know that I Got cured of Herpes Virus, after the Medical Doctor had confirmed this with the test results, when I went for a medical check up after completing the Herbal Dosage Of 18 days. Doctor Razor's Website : https://herbalistrazorherb.wixsite.com/drrazorherbalhome or Reach out to Doctor razor via email : drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com
    WhatsApp +2349065420442

    ReplyDelete
  31. Natural herbs have cured so many illness that drugs and injection can’t cure. I've seen the great importance of natural herbs and the wonderful work they have done in people's lives. i read people's testimonies online on how they were cured of HERPES, HIV, diabetics etc by Dr Edes herbal medicine, so i decided to contact the doctor because i know nature has the power to heal anything. I was diagnosed with Herpes for the past 3 years but Dr Edes cured me with his herbs and i referred my aunt and her husband to him immediately because they were both suffering from Herpes but to God be the glory, they were cured too .I know is hard to believe but am a living testimony. There is no harm trying herbs, Thanks. Write him on WhatsApp on +2348151937428. @dr_edes_remedies deals with
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    ReplyDelete
  32. JOIN THE ILLUMINATI BROTHERHOOD NOW AND BECOME A MILLIONAIRE !!!!!
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    ReplyDelete
  33. OFFICIAL HACKING COMPANY IS LEGIT COMPANY TO GET BLANK ATM CARD.       I am sure a lot of us are still unaware of the recent development of the Blank ATM card.. An ATM card that can change your financial status within few days. With this Blank ATM card, you can withdraw between $1000-$10,000 daily from any ATM machine in the world. There is no risk of getting caught by any form of security if you followed the insatructions properly. The Blank ATM card is also sophisticated due to the fact that the card has its own security making your transaction very safe and untraceable. For more info contact Mr bill with the below E-mail: officialhackingcompany@gmail.com website https://official-hacking-company.jimdosite.com/

    ReplyDelete
  34. Hello, are you interested in joining the great Illuminati brotherhood where you can become rich ,famous, powers, and wealth, for the rest of your life ? Benefit given to new members who join the Illuminati brotherhood $2,000,000 into your bank account...... $800,000 weekly salary.........
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    ReplyDelete
  35. How to Join the Illuminati brotherhood!!! Call or Whats'App agent Allen +1(518)293-0860 Are you in Germany,

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    ReplyDelete
  36. I want to tell the worlds, that the illuminati is real because i have see the benefit of being a member of illuminati, i have tried to join the illuminati some many times, i have been scammed alot of money, but i did not give up because i know if i find the real illuminati, my life will be changed forever so i did not stop, on till i find the real illuminati official email and phone number, if you want to join the real illuminati, i want you to know that i can direct you to the real illuminati official email and phone number, brothers/sisters who is interested or who have be scammed so many times like me, that still have interest to join the illuminati because you believed that if you join your life will be changed, you do not have to worry about anything because i am here to show you all the right way to join the real illuminati, i want you all to know that to join the real illuminati it is free, you will not be ask to pay for any fee, all the process is free to join the illuminati, because when i joined the real illuminati i did not pay for any fee, when i was totally initiated to the illuminati, i was given so many benefits as a new member, i can tell you some of the benefits i was give an instant $2,000,000.00 to start a new life, house of your choice car of your choice, brothers/sisters that have interest to join the illuminati, this is the real illuminati official email: churchofsataninitiationtemple@gmail.com and the illuminati phone call center or WhatsApp number is +1 (508) 819 2672 you can contact the illuminati official email or WhatsApp number of how to join, it is free to join the illuminati.

    ReplyDelete
  37. How to Join the Illuminati brotherhood!!! Call or Whats'App agent Allen +1(518)293-0860 Are you in Germany,

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    10.One Month booked. Appointment with Top 5 world Leaders and Top 5 Celebrities in the World

    ReplyDelete
  38. A LITTLE ACT OF KINDNESS CAN MAKE YOU REMEMBERED FOR A LONG TIME. GOD BLESS THE GREAT MIND BEHIND CREATING THIS READING PLATFORM. My problem with herpes type 2 has caused me many traumas, especially in my sexual life. I was so afraid of infecting my Boyfriend, I suffered the embarrassment of visiting dermatologists queries hundreds of times. Unfortunately, they did not find a definitive solution to my problem.The solution came from the least expected place By reading in a forum on the subject, mentioned a method for eliminating herpes simplex virus 2. Many people had tried, with excellent and quick results.I had nothing to lose so I decided to use this method to eliminate my herpes 2. spent 18 days using this method and my herpes type 2 completely disappeared. I recommend this method to all those infected with herpes virus, who want to eliminate the herpes from their body forever. Contact Doctor Razor via his Email : drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com , I recommend his herbal herpes healing method. you can visit his website : https://herbalistrazorherb.wixsite.com/drrazorherbalhome, Whatsapp or Call Doctor Razor Via +2349065420442

    ReplyDelete

  39. Illuminati is real...
    i am Monika Herrmann from United State Texas, i am here to share my testimony of how i got initiated by Mr.Martin Davidson ..... i was trying to join the great Illuminati brotherhood over three years now but i kept falling in the hands of scammers which took over 6,000 USD from me and i was so confused because i was not able to take good care of my self and family until i found a friend from France who introduced me to Mr. Martin Davidson, so i chatted with him on whatsApp and he told me what to do and i got initiated peacefully and successfully and now i am very happy...
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    ReplyDelete
  40. Hello, Do you want to join the illuminati and be rich ,famous and powerful? for the rest of your life ? Benefits given to new member who join the illuminati $900,000,000 into your bank account...... $800,000 weekly salary......... A car value at $800.000....... Award contract worth $250,000,000....... A House in any country of your own choice. And a free visa to your dream country Total lifestyle changes?? if you are interested, e-mail: joinilluminati21@gmail.com and also Whatsapp:+1(364) 202-5427 6⃣6⃣6⃣

    ReplyDelete
  41. This is a good news to my life and my generations, i am so proud of the great illuminati brotherhood, i want to say a big thanks to the illuminati brotherhood in world, i have tried so many times to join the illuminati brotherhood, so that i can live a better life, but i was not lucky to meet the right people that will help me join this illuminati, i have been scammed so many times, and i was promise that i will receive my benefits as a member, all was scam and i was not happy about it, because i read in the internet that so many great men and women are all illuminati members, this was the reason i never stopped, because i know that when i meet the right illuminati, my life will be changed for good, because of this i still believe in the illuminati and continue search on the internet, i never give up because i have the hope and believe, i was born to make it in life, because my dad once told me that if you give up in life, life will also give up on you, because of this i never one give up, on till i meet the right agent of illuminati, that directed me on how to join the illuminati, brothers and sisters i wan t to use this opportunity to tell everyone that it is totally tree to join the illuminati, you don't need to spend any money to join, it is free don't pay any money to join illuminati, because i was scammed so many times, the real illuminati don't ask for money to join, when i was totally initiated, i was given so many benefits, in my induction day i was given a cash of $2,000,000,00 ring of protection to protect my self and my family, Car of my choice and mansion of my choice and etc, Brothers and Sisters who are interested to join the illuminati and you have been scammed so many times, don't give up i will now direct you to the real illuminati official email: churchofilluminatiwealth@gmail.com or you can Call/Text WhatsApp Number +1 (508) 819 2672 You must have to know this that it is totally free to join the illuminati brotherhood.

    ReplyDelete
  42. Hello!!! Do you want to be a member of the illuminati and start receiving $50,000,000,00USD monthly and be popular among others and have riches, fame and powers,,this is the only chance of being of the illuminati..I was sent by the freemason high chief to bring 32 members into the illminati,I have gotten 22,so am looking for 10,,so try and be among the ten people to be rich and famous,if you are interested, WhatsApp us: +33758476136 , https://wa.link/d4ml2g Email: illuminatiword0666@gmail.com so we can begin the joining process!!!

    ReplyDelete
  43. Hello, are you interested in joining the great Illuminati brotherhood where you can become rich ,famous, powers, and wealth, for the rest of your life ? Benefit given to new members who join the Illuminati brotherhood $2,000,000 into your bank account...... $800,000 weekly salary.........
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    ReplyDelete
  44. Attention to all, illuminati has become what people in different country use to make money instead of
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    ReplyDelete

  45. Cool way to have financial freedom!!! Are you tired of living a poor life, here is the opportunity you have been waiting for. Get the new ATM BLANK CARD that can hack any ATM MACHINE and withdraw money from any account. You do not require anybody’s account number before you can use it. Although you and I knows that its illegal,there is no risk using it. It has SPECIAL FEATURES, that makes the machine unable to detect this very card,and its transaction can’t be traced .You can use it anywhere in the world. With this card,you can withdraw nothing less than $4,500 a day. So to get the card,reach the hackers via email address : besthackersworld58@gmail.com or whatsapp him on +1(323)-723-2568

    ReplyDelete
  46. GRAB THIS LIFE CHANGING OPPORTUNITY TODAY
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    ReplyDelete
  47. It's a pleasure for me to write this testimony about this wonderful thing that happened to me last week on how i got my peripheral artery disease (PAD) cured, i have been reading so-many post of some people who were cured of peripheral artery disease (PAD), but i never believed them, I was hurt and depressed so I was too curious and wanted to try dr emu when i contact him, he assured me 100% that he will heal me, i pleaded with him to help me out, it's a great success that he healed just as he promised, he told me that in three days time that i should go and check on my peripheral artery disease (PAD) status, I was floored that when i went to the hospital to check of my status that i was peripheral artery disease (PAD) negative, i never thought possible that dr emu can do miracles, i never really believed in magic but I played along with a little hope and faith and after everything but dr emu changed my life and made me a true believer you can contact him emutemple@gmail.com  emutemple@yahoo.com or whatsapp Number: +2347012841542 website: https://emutemple.wordpress.com/ he said that he is also specialize on the following diseases: HERPES, HIV, ALS, HPV, DIABETES, HEPATITIS B, CANCER, SICKLE CELL, VIRGINAL DRYNESS, And Bring Back Your Ex back.

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  49. Hi, I just want to share my experience with everyone. I have being hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and i never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until one day i discovered a hacking Mr scott thomas. he is really good at what he is doing. Back to the point, I inquired about The Blank ATM Card. If it works or even Exist. They told me Yes and that its a card programmed for only money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. This was shocking and i still had my doubts. Then i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to their terms and conditions.. Four days later I received my card and tried with the closest ATM machine close to me, to my greatest surprise It worked like magic. I was able to withdraw up to $5,000 daily. ATM has really change my life. If you want to contact them, Here is the email: globalatmcardhackingservice@gmail.com

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  50. I know you have been scammed before or you’re scared to join the Illuminati brotherhood due to the conspiracy theories about it. Today comes with a good news for you, I want you to know that you won’t kill human being to join or will you be asked to pay for Registration fee.
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  51. Hello viewers all over the world, There is good news for you all today get your Blank ATM card that works in all ATM machines all over the world. We have specially programmed ATM cards that can be used to hack ATM machines, the ATM cards can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swipe, at stores and POS. We give out this cards to all interested clients worldwide, We give out THE Blank ATM Card. Do you want to live a good life thought its illegal, its the easiest way to be a millionaire. it also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTV to detect you and you can only withdraw a total amount of $5,000 Dollars in a day on ATM Machine also avaialbel at cash delivery. We give up to $10,000.00 to $1,000,000.00 Dollars With our network hacking services. We can Recover all your lost money to Bitcoin and other Crypto currency, mortgage/realestate scams and fake ICOs within 48 hours or less. (Thomas Freddie Hackers) working together as a team to track down & to recover funds back from the most difficult internet SCAMMERS. NOTE!! We've received countless heartbreaking reports of notorious scammers and we’ve successful recovery them back via thomasunlimitedhackers@gmail.com

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  52. Hello,MY NAMES ARE LUKAS GRAHAMI got my already programmed and blanked ATM card to withdraw the maximum of $5,000 daily for a maximum of 15 days.I am so happy about this because i got mine last week and I have used it to get $100,000.Mr FRANK ROBERT is giving out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it is something nice and he is not like other scam pretending to have the blank ATM cards. And no one gets caught when using the card.get yours from him.Just send him an email via Creditcards.atm@gmail.com you can also call or whatsapp today for more enlightenment Email:Creditcards.atm@gmail.com 

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  53. Hello,MY NAMES ARE LUKAS GRAHAMI got my already programmed and blanked ATM card to withdraw the maximum of $5,000 daily for a maximum of 15 days.I am so happy about this because i got mine last week and I have used it to get $100,000.Mr FRANK ROBERT is giving out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it is something nice and he is not like other scam pretending to have the blank ATM cards. And no one gets caught when using the card.get yours from him.Just send him an email via Creditcards.atm@gmail.com you can also call or whatsapp today for more enlightenment Email:Creditcards.atm@gmail.com 

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  56. HOW ILLUMINATI BROTHERHOOD MAKE ME RICH AND FAMOUS. I am a member of the illuminati brotherhood, i want to give thanks to the Lord Lucifer, for what he has done for me, he changed my life, he bring joy and happiness to my life, i am living a good life today is because of the illuminati brotherhood, i have being try all my life to join the illuminati brotherhood, i was scammed some many times but i still did not give up, because when you give up in life, life will also give up on you, if you have been scammed so many times, my advise for you is not to give up, because the illuminati brotherhood is real, i joined the real illuminati paying just 300usd, to join the illuminati, i want you all to know today, , you don't pay money to join, my advice for you all is to make up your mind and join the illuminati brotherhood, when my initiation process was completed the benefits amount which was given to me is $1,000,000 to start a new life, this is the reason why i can not stop hailing the illuminati brotherhood, Are you a musician or a politician or a business person and you want to become rich in what you do if you are in any kind of problems or you in support in life, my advice to you is to join the illuminati brotherhood so that all your problems can be solve in life, to join the illuminati brotherhood you can contact James on whatsapp, +2348102497218 or Email him on illuminatip8@gmail.com for more info

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  57. I was thinking that illuminati is not real, But today with Mr David Mark I now believe that illuminati is real, when you come across wrong person’s you will think that life is not real but when you are with the real one you will experience the goodness of your life, To Mr David Mark has made me discovered my purpose of life. Welcome to the great brotherhood of Illuminati 666: . WhatsApp mr David Mark , from Nigeria, and every other Country’s on how to join the Illuminati brotherhood to get rich and famous, You may be a politician, business man/woman ,musical artist, student, footballer or whatever occupation you do, you want to be rich, powerful and famous in life. Illuminati can grant all your heart desires join the Illuminati to become rich and famous in life, Illuminati will make you achieve all your dream to become rich and protected all the days of your life…… BENEFIT GIVEN TO A NEW MEMBER WHO JOIN THE ILLUMINATI a cash reward of usd $500,000.00USD a new sleek dream car valued at USD $3.5,000USD a dream house build in any country of your own choice one month holiday (fully paid) to your dream tourist destination.One year golf membership package a V I P treatment in all airports in the world a total lifestyle change access to bohemian grove monthly payment of$5,000,00USD into your bank account every month as a member, one month booked appointment with top 5 world leaders and top 5 celebrities in the world» JOIN ILLUMINATI YOUR FINANCIALDIFFICULTIES ARE BROUGHT TO AN END. WE SUPPORT YOU BOTH FINANCIALLYAND SPIRITUALLY TO ENSURE YOU LIVE A COMFORTABLE LIFE . IF YOU ARE INTERESTED CONTACT Mr David Mark on WhatsApp (+2348053103764) Or call him (+2348053103764) For immediately response… My Regard to mr David Mark.......

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  61. Effective love spell to get your lost lover back/stop divorce/save broken marriage

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    Effective love spell to get your lost lover back/stop divorce/save broken marriage

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