Monday, October 24, 2022

Partial Solar Eclipse Early Tue. Morning, w/ Live-stream Web-casts



A Partial Solar Eclipse / Partial Eclipse of the Sun will be visible (weather-permitting) early Tuesday morning in Europe, Africa, Middle East, and western Asia

NEITHER THIS PARTIAL SOLAR ECLIPSE / PARTIAL ECLIPSE OF THE SUN, NOR ANY PARTIAL PHASE OR ANNULAR PHASE OF ANY SOLAR ECLIPSE / ECLIPSE OF THE SUN, IS SAFE TO LOOK AT DIRECTLY, UNLESS YOU HAVE THE PROPER EQUIPMENT AND PROPER TRAINING TO DO SO SAFELY; OTHERWISE EYE-SIGHT COULD BE DAMAGED PERMANENTLY.

 This graphic shows one way to safely view the partial phases of a Solar Eclipse by building a Solar Pinhole Viewing Box (a.k.a. Pinhole Camera) as shown above. After building this box, you must turn your back to the Sun and allow the light from the Sun to go through the pinhole and shine on a white piece of paper on the other end of the box (NEVER LOOK THROUGH THE PINHOLE AT THE SUN!).
(Graphic Source: Eric G. Canali, former Floor Operations Manager of the original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), America's fifth major planetarium and Pittsburgh's science and technology museum from 1939 to 1991, and Founder of the South Hills Backyard Astronomers amateur astronomy club.)

By Glenn A. Walsh

Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

A Partial Solar Eclipse / Partial Eclipse of the Sun will be visible (weather-permitting) Tuesday over Europe, Africa, Middle East, and western Asia. Live-stream web-casts are available of the event, for those not in view of the event or where weather conditions are not amenable.

NEITHER THIS PARTIAL SOLAR ECLIPSE / PARTIAL ECLIPSE OF THE SUN, NOR ANY PARTIAL PHASE OR ANNULAR PHASE OF ANY SOLAR ECLIPSE / ECLIPSE OF THE SUN, IS SAFE TO LOOK AT DIRECTLY, UNLESS YOU HAVE THE PROPER EQUIPMENT AND PROPER TRAINING TO DO SO SAFELY; OTHERWISE EYE-SIGHT COULD BE DAMAGED PERMANENTLY. GO TO THE FOLLOWING INTERNET LINK FOR TIPS ON SAFE VIEWING OF A SOLAR ECLIPSE / ECLIPSE OF THE SUN:

Link >>> https://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/FAQ/soleclipse/solareclipseviewingtips.html

Internet links to Live-stream Web-casts of this eclipse located near the end of this blog-post.

Of course, a Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun can only be observed (if, you are using a safe observing technique), if the Sun has risen at a certain locale, weather-permitting. Near the end of this blog-post is an Internet link to a map(s) showing where such an Eclipse can be observed, and whether the entire Eclipse can be observed, or if only a portion of the Eclipse can be observed. Also, near the end of this blog-post is an Internet link to a U.S.  Naval Observatory web-page, where you can plug in your location to determine the times of sunrise and sunset.

A Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun occurs at the New Moon primary phase of the Moon, when the Moon comes between the Earth and the Sun and blocks the Sun's light from a portion of the Earth's surface. The reason a Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun does not happen during every New Moon phase is because the Moon's orbit around the Earth is not a perfect circle and in the same orbital plane as the Earth. The Moon's orbit is tilted about 5 degrees to Earth's orbit; hence, the lunar shadow caused by sunlight usually misses the Earth's surface.

A Total Solar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Sun occurs when the the Sun's light is completely blocked from a portion of the Earth's surface. A Partial Solar Eclipse / Partial Eclipse of the Sun (including the partial phases of a Total Solar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Sun) occurs when only a portion of the Sun's light is blocked from a portion of the Earth's surface.

An Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun occurs when the Moon is too far away from the Earth to completely cover the Sun's light; a dangerous annulus of sunlight, or “ring of fire”, is visible around the edge of the Moon during such an eclipse. This occurs as the Moon's orbit around the Earth is an ellipse, not a circle. Thus at certain times during the nearly-month long lunar orbit (known as a Tropical Month or Sidereal Month: ~27.32 days), the Moon is farther from the Earth than at other times of the month. When the time the Moon is farther from the Earth than average coincides with a Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun, the result is an Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun.

A rare type of Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun is the Hybrid Solar Eclipse / Hybrid Eclipse of the Sun (also known as an Annular / Total Solar Eclipse / Annular / Total Eclipse of the Sun). With this type of eclipse, at certain places on Earth it appears as a Total Solar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Sun, while at other areas of the Earth's surface it appears as an Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun.

One of the greatest coincidences in nature is the fact that the Sun's distance from the Earth is about 400 times the distance from Earth to the Moon --- AND, the Sun's diameter is about 400 times the diameter of the Moon. This allows for the occurrence of a Total Solar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Sun. Hence, even before humans had advanced technology, early scientists could learn more about the Sun and the Moon by observing a Total Solar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Sun.

As early as the 4th Century B.C., Chinese astronomers were able to predict the dates and times of a Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun. Today, such eclipses can be predicted, accurately, far into the future.

During a Total Solar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Sun on 1919 May 29, English astronomer Arthur Eddington made stellar observations which confirmed the General Theory of Relativity proposed by Albert Einstein in 1915. An experiment that could only occur during a Total Solar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Sun, Dr. Eddington was able to confirm Dr. Einstein's theoretical prediction of gravitational lenses, which shows that a large mass in Outer Space is capable of bending the light seen by an observer, from a light source beyond the large mass.

All eclipses come in pairs (a Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun comes a couple weeks before, or after, a Lunar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Moon), sometimes even in threes. In the current case, a Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon will occur early on the morning of 2022 November 8, visible in North America, most of South America, Asia, Australia, and parts of northern and eastern Europe, weather-permitting.

The following are the times, in Eastern Daylight Saving Time (EDT) and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), for the second and last Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun of 2022 (both a Partial Solar Eclipse / Partial Eclipse of the Sun):

Tuesday, 2022 October 25 – Eastern Daylight Saving Time (EDT) / Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) ---

Partial Solar Eclipse Begins: 4:58:20 a.m. EDT / 8:58 :20 UTC

Primary Moon Phase: New Moon – Lunation #1235: 6:49 a.m. EDT / 10:49 UTC

Maximum Eclipse (82 per-cent obscuration by Moon): 7:00:16 a.m. EDT / 11:00:16 UTC

Partial Solar Eclipse Ends: 9:02:16 a.m. EDT / 13:02:16 UTC

2022 October 25 also marks the 83rd anniversary of the grand public opening of the original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science in Pittsburgh, which occurred on 1939 October 25. The official dedication ceremony had occurred at 8:30 p.m. the previous evening, before an invitation-only list of VIPs. However, the dedication ceremony was broadcast on three Pittsburgh radio stations: KQV, KDKA, and WWSW. The Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), the fifth major planetarium in America, was Pittsburgh's science and technology museum from 1939 to 1991.

Internet Links to Live-stream Web-casts of 2022 Oct. 25 Partial Solar Eclipse / Partial Eclipse of the Sun ---

Link >>> http://time.unitarium.com/events/eclipse/102022/live.html

Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun: Tips for Safe Viewing ---

Link >>> https://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/FAQ/soleclipse/solareclipseviewingtips.html

Internet Links to Determine Where an Eclipse can be Observed ---

Map (NASA): Link >>> 

U.S. Naval Observatory Sunrise / Sunset Calculator:

Link >>> https://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/RS_OneDay

Internet Links to Additional Information ---

Partial Solar Eclipse / Partial Eclipse of the Sun of 2022 Oct. 25 -

NASA: Link >>> https://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEsearch/SEsearchmap.php?Ecl=20221025 

TimeandDate.com: Link >>> https://www.timeanddate.com/eclipse/solar/2022-october-25 

Wikipedia.org: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_eclipse_of_October_25,_2022 

Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_eclipse

Related Blog Posts --

"100 Years Ago: U.S. Scientist Questions Evidence Proving General Theory of Relativity." Wed., 2019 Nov. 13.

Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2019/11/100-years-ago-us-scientist-questions.html 


"Great American Solar Eclipse Next Monday: Some Ways to See It Safely." Mon., 2017 Aug. 14.

Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2017/08/great-american-solar-eclipse-next-mon.html

Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss          

               Monday, 2022 October 24.


                             Like This Post?  Please Share!

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gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Informal Science Educator & Communicator                                                               (For more than 50 years! - Since Monday Morning, 1972 June 12):
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/
Electronic Mail: < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/
SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/
Formerly Astronomical Observatory Coordinator & Planetarium Lecturer, original Buhl Planetarium & Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), America's fifth major planetarium and Pittsburgh's science & technology museum from 1939 to 1991.
Formerly Trustee, Andrew Carnegie Free Library and Music Hall, Pittsburgh suburb of Carnegie, Pennsylvania, the fourth of only five libraries both constructed and endowed by Andrew Carnegie.
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh: Link >>>  http://www.planetarium.cc  Buhl Observatory: Link >>>  http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2016/11/75th-anniversary-americas-5th-public.html
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago: Link >>> http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear: Link >>> http://johnbrashear.tripod.com
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries: Link >>> http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc

* Other Walsh-Authored Blog & Web-Sites: Link >>> https://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/gawweb.html

 

Thursday, October 20, 2022

Moonshot Space Museum Opens in Pittsburgh

                     

Observation windows looking into the Astrobotic Clean Room, from the new Moonshot Space Museum, located on Pittsburgh's Lower North Side. In this photograph, two Astrobotic engineers are working on the Peregrine Moon Lander, scheduled to go to the Moon early in 2023.

More photographs of the Moonshot Space Museum, and the Museum's Dedication Ceremony, at the following Internet Link >>> https://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/Moon/Moonshot_Museum/opening.html

(Image Source: Friends of the Zeiss; Photographer: Glenn A. Walsh)

By Glenn A. Walsh

Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

Pennsylvania's first space exploration museum, and the first museum to concentrate on “career readiness for the contemporary space industry” according to the museum publicity, opened in Pittsburgh on Saturday, 2022 October 15. Pittsburgh's Space Museum, the Moonshot Museum, was developed by Astrobotic Technology, which is building robotic space probes for missions on Earth's Moon.

The Moonshot Space Museum, which is located within the same building as the Astrobotic headquarters and manufacturing facility, includes large windows for public viewing of the construction of Moon-bound spacecraft, being built inside a Clean Room.

By necessity, the museum is smaller than most museums, about 3,000 square feet in size. This is approximately the size of the Bowdish Gallery, in Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science / Buhl Science Center, which many will remember as the former home of the very popular Miniature Railroad and Village.

However, the small size of the museum's gallery belies the great educational experience that can be found in the Moonshot Space Museum. About a dozen educational exhibits, along with four tables for children's activities, can be found in this gallery.

The museum's first day was well attended, and the public was delighted to learn that everyone visiting the first day received free admission. Additionally, each person attending the museum's Dedication Ceremony received a commemorative patch with a drawing of a lunar lander on the Moon, with the Earth and stars shown in the background, and the patch says: “MOONSHOT MUSEUM, FIND YOUR PLACE IN SPACE”.

Normal admission charges are $10 for adults, $5 for children ages 3 to 17, and children under the age of 3 are free-of-charge. Although the museum opened at 9:00 for the first day, normal visiting hours are 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Prevailing Time, Wednesday through Sunday; the museum is closed Monday and Tuesday.

The Moonshot Space Museum is located at 1016 North Lincoln Avenue, one block from Allegheny Avenue, in the Manchester section of Pittsburgh's Lower North Side. Although the site has limited parking, public parking is available, along with a Pittsburgh Regional Transit (a.k.a. Port Authority of Allegheny County Transit) Light Rail Station at the corner of Allegheny Avenue and Reedsdale Street, three blocks from the museum; less than a block from the Allegheny Light Rail Station, in the opposite direction towards the Ohio River, is The Carnegie Science Center.

Astrobotic created the Moonshot Space Museum as an independent, non-profit organization. The initial $2.7 million capital campaign, for the museum, has been completed, with funding coming from the Richard King Mellon Foundation, Henry L. Hillman Foundation, Allegheny Foundation, Burke Foundation, Howmet Aerospace Foundation, and Buhl Foundation, among several others.

Each public visit begins with a ten-minute video, in a mini-theater, regarding the future of space exploration and the burgeoning commercial space industry. Upon leaving the mini-theater, visitors can immediately see the construction of Astrobotic spacecraft in a Clean Room, through large observation windows. Currently, Astrobotic engineers and technicians can be seen working on the Peregrine Moon Lander, which is set to go to space next year. To maintain an ultra-clean environment in the Clean Room, the engineers and technicians must be clad in white lab coats, hair-nets, blue gloves, and blue booties. Additionally, they must wear a special band on their wrist, which can be grounded, to eliminate static electric sparks.

A nearby exhibit shows a 1:30 model replica of the United Launch Alliance (ULA) Vulcan Centaur Rocket, which will launch Astrobotic's Peregrine Moon Lander into Outer Space early in 2023. This will be the first American spacecraft to land on the Moon in 50 years, since the Apollo 17 landing in December of 1972. Although no people will be with the Peregrine Moon Lander, 24 payloads will be carried including scientific equipment from NASA, other national space agencies, and Carnegie Mellon University.

Another nearby exhibit shows the CubeRover, a new Moon rover which Astrobotic describes as a cost-effective way for companies, governments, universities, non-profits, and individuals to send payloads to the Moon.

Large interactive maps of the Moon, one map showing the near-side hemisphere of the Moon and the other map showing the far-side, highlight lunar landing missions. Special note is given that the far-side of the Moon is NOT the dark-side of the Moon, as made famous in the Pink Floyd rock-and-roll band's hit song; both lunar hemispheres experience nightfall for about half a month, each month.

Another exhibit, called “Space Debates”, allows members of the public to consider a broad range of legal and social issues that will be encountered as humans further explore and commercialize Outer Space. The issues considered come under four categories: Governance and Law, Science and Technology, Environment and Nature, and Health and Medicine.

“Hydration Station” describes the importance of finding water (H2O) on the Moon and beyond, for future space travelers – for producing drinking water, rocket fuel, and breathable oxygen (O). This exhibit includes the museum's public drinking fountains!

“Hope Moonshot” allows visitors to write messages of hope for the future and submit them for archiving on the Moon. Each message will be transcribed to a memory-card and sent with one of the Astrobotic missions going to the Moon.

Other exhibits talk about mapping the Moon, exploring the lunar surface, and possible future lunar habitats. One exhibit describes some historic astronomers and space explorers, including Pittsburgh's Phoebe and John Brashear. John Brashear created a world-renowned company that produced telescopes and other precision scientific instruments; he also fund-raised for, and helped develop, the new Allegheny Observatory in the North Side's Riverview Park.

Additional scientists and space explorers are highlighted with special citations on the front of the museum's admissions and gift counter. This includes Emsworth, Pennsylvania-native Mike Fincke, a NASA Space Shuttle Astronaut who logged over a year in Outer Space, conducted 9 space-walks, and commanded the International Space Station (ISS); he cites the original Buhl Planetarium as inspiration for becoming an astronaut. Mount Washington's Jack Kinzler, known as NASA's “Mr. Fix-It”, is credited with creating an extending rod at the top of the flag poles mounted on the lunar surface, so the American flag appears to be flying, although there is no air or wind on the Moon.

Although Astrobotic, Moonshot Space Museum's parent, is not shy about displaying their space hardware and space exploration mission plans in this museum, they are really more interested in future staff for their space endeavors. They want the museum to inspire young people to consider possible careers with Astrobotic or other careers in the space industry. STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) education for young people is a major thrust for the Moonshot Space Museum.

The Moonshot Space Museum was created by Astrobotic Technology, a spin-off company from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). Founded in 2007 by famed CMU robotics professor Red Whittaker, the privately-held company is now lead by President John Thornton. Astrobotic concentrates on robotics missions to the Moon, and eventually other planetary missions. In addition to the Peregrine Moon Lander mission scheduled for early next year, Astrobotic has a contract with NASA to carry the NASA VIPER Rover, which will look for water ice in the permanently-shadowed areas of craters near the Moon's South Pole; this mission is scheduled for November of 2024..

The Dedication Ceremony, held outside the entrance to the Moonshot Space Museum and Astrobotic Technology (their entrances are co-located), was hosted by Moonshot Space Museum Executive Director Sam Moore. Allegheny County Chief Executive Rich Fitzgerald and City of Pittsburgh Mayor Ed Gainey addressed the on-lookers.

The Keynote Address was delivered by Dr. Lori Glaze, Director of the Planetary Science Division, Science Mission Directorate, for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). She spent several minutes explaining how curiosity is important for discovery and her hope that this new museum will spur curiosity in visitors. She said she hopes that visitors to the museum, particularly young people, will ponder how they can fit into the new space exploration profession.

A cheer-leading unit of young people, from the North Side's Manchester neighborhood where the Moonshot Space Museum is located, provided cheers for the opening of the museum.

Instead of a ribbon-cutting, the Moonshot Space Museum was launched by a science experiment performed by students from the North Side's Perry High School. The result of the science experiment was colored foam being launched several feet in the air, from four large science beakers.

Several tables, under a tent, were staffed by local non-profit organizations supporting the opening of the Moonshot Space Museum. These organizations included Assemble, A Community Space for Arts and Technology from Penn Avenue in Garfield, The Carnegie Science Center from just a few blocks down the hill, and theatrical group Attack Theatre from 45th Street in Lawrenceville. There was also a table with children's activities.

Some non-profit organizations provided volunteers to assist with the Moonshot Space Museum's first day, including the Amateur Astronomers Association of Pittsburgh and The Carnegie Science Center.

Curiously, Pittsburgh seems to have a habit of the public opening of science museums on a day ending in the number “5” in the month of October! The Moonshot Space Museum opened to the public on 2022 October 15.

The grand public opening of the original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science occurred on 1939 October 25. The official dedication had occurred at 8:30 p.m. the previous evening, before an invitation-only list of VIPs. However, the dedication was broadcast on three Pittsburgh radio stations: KQV, KDKA, and WWSW.

The Carnegie Science Center officially opened to the public on 1991 October 5. The retired U.S. Navy submarine, USS Requin, docked in the Ohio River next to the new science center building, had been available for public tours since September of 1990, operated by the Buhl Science Center (a.k.a. The Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science) until the new science center opened.

Even The Carnegie Museum of Natural History opened on a day ending in “5”, but 5 days after October had ended. The Carnegie Institute, which includes The Carnegie Museum of Natural History and The Carnegie Library, as well as The Carnegie Music Hall and The Carnegie Museum of Art, opened to the public on 1895 November 5. Andrew Carnegie, a proud native of Scotland, chose November 5 to open some of his early libraries [including libraries in Homestead, Pennsylvania (1898) and Canton, Ohio (1905), in addition to Pittsburgh]. In Scotland, November 5 is known as Guy Fawkes Day, commemorating the failed plot (Gunpowder Plot of 1605) to blow-up the British Parliament and assassinate James Charles Stuart, who was Scotland's King James IV and King James I of England and Ireland (after the 1603 union of the English and Scottish Crowns).

 

                 

Commemorative patch given to each person who attended the Dedication Ceremony of the Moonshot Space Museum.

More photographs of the Moonshot Space Museum, and the Museum's Dedication Ceremony, at the following Internet Link >>> https://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/Moon/Moonshot_Museum/opening.html

(Image Source: Friends of the Zeiss; Photographer: Glenn A. Walsh)

Internet Links to Additional Information ---

ADDENDUM: Photographs of the Moonshot Space Museum and the Museum's Dedication Ceremony:

Link >>> https://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/Moon/Moonshot_Museum/opening.html

Moonshot Space Museum: Link >>> https://moonshotmuseum.org/

Astrobotic Technology -

Link 1 >>> https://www.astrobotic.com/

Link 2 >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrobotic_Technology

History of The Buhl Planetarium & Institute of Popular Science / Buhl Science Center:

Link >>> http://www.planetarium.cc/

Astronomer & Telescope Maker John Brashear: Link >>> https://johnbrashear.tripod.com/

NASA Astronaut Mike Fincke: Link >>> https://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/bio/Pghastronauts.html#fincke

History of Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh: Link >>> https://andrewcarnegie.tripod.com/cfl.html#clp

Related Blog-Posts ---

"Science Museums Rebound After Worst of Pandemic." Tue., 2022 Sept. 27.

Association of Science & Technology Centers (ASTC) 2022 Conference in Pittsburgh

Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2022/09/science-museums-rebound-after-worst-of.html


"Pittsburgh Museum Displays Historic Apollo 11 Moon Mission Artifacts." Wed., 2018 Oct. 24.

Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss          

               Thursday, 2022 October 20.


                             Like This Post?  Please Share!

           More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>> https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < spacewatchtower@planetarium.cc >.

gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Informal Science Educator & Communicator                                                               (For more than 50 years! - Since Monday Morning, 1972 June 12):
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/
Electronic Mail: < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/
SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/
Formerly Astronomical Observatory Coordinator & Planetarium Lecturer, original Buhl Planetarium & Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), Pittsburgh's science & technology museum from 1939 to 1991.
Formerly Trustee, Andrew Carnegie Free Library and Music Hall, Pittsburgh suburb of Carnegie, Pennsylvania.
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh: Link >>>  http://www.planetarium.cc  Buhl Observatory: Link >>>  http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2016/11/75th-anniversary-americas-5th-public.html
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago: Link >>> http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear: Link >>> http://johnbrashear.tripod.com
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries: Link >>> http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc

* Other Walsh-Authored Blog & Web-Sites: Link >>> https://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/gawweb.html

Saturday, October 8, 2022

More Evening Light w/ Hunter's Moon This Weekend

   

Photograph of Blockhouse replica at Fort Ouiatenon, a mid-18th century French fort on the Wabash River near West Lafayette, Indiana. Each year a weekend Hunter's Moon Festival, "Feast of the Hunter's Moon," is held at the Fort Ouiatenon site. The festival reenacts the annual 18th century Fall gathering of French and Native Americans.

(Image Sources: Wikipedia.com, By Hammer51012 - Flickr, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=8529879)

 By Glenn A. Walsh

Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

More evening light, coming just after the earlier sunsets of early Autumn, occur with the annual Hunter's Moon (usually, the Full Moon of October) and a few days near the day of this Full Moon (weather-permitting).

Traditionally, this time of year helped give early Europeans, Native Americans, and early North American colonists the extra light in the early evening for hunting game, to prepare for the cold-weather months of Winter when game would be hard to procure. However, anyone can take advantage of this extra evening light, as the early, Autumn evening temperatures are still not too cold.

The annual Hunter's Moon, the Full Moon of October this year, is visible this weekend, weather-permitting. Plus, a near-Full Hunter's Moon, for several days on both sides of the weekend, will also be available, weather-permitting.

The exact moment of the Full Moon of October, known as the Hunter's Moon most years including this year, is 4:55 p.m. Eastern Daylight Saving Time (EDT) / 20:55 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) on Sunday Afternoon, 2022 October 9. Of course, the Hunter's Moon becomes visible (weather-permitting) in the vicinity of the time of sunset on the days around the day of Full Moon.

While the Native Americans, as well as the farmers of Europe and early America, gave names to each Full Moon of the year, normally associating each Full Moon name with a particular month of the year, two well-known Full Moon names stray from this convention. The annual Harvest Moon and the annual Hunter's Moon are aligned with the season of Autumn or Fall, and each can occur in one of two possible months each year: September or October for the Harvest Moon and October or November for the Hunter's Moon.

The Harvest Moon is defined as the Full Moon closest to the Autumnal Equinox, the astronomical beginning of the season of Autumn or Fall. The Autumnal Equinox occurs each year around September 22 or 23. Of course, the Harvest Moon can, and often does, occur in late Summer, before the Autumnal Equinox.

The Hunter's Moon is simply defined as the Full Moon following the Harvest Moon.

For this year, the Harvest Moon was the Full Moon of Saturday Morning, 2022 September 10, at 5:59 a.m. Eastern Daylight Saving Time (EDT) / 9:59 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The Autumnal Equinox for this year, the beginning of the season of Autumn or Fall in the Earth's Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of the season of Spring in the Southern Hemisphere, fell on Thursday Evening, 2022 September 22 at 9:04 p.m. EDT / September 23 at 1:04 UTC.

In certain years (approximately one-third of the time), the Harvest Moon occurs in early October, as then the Full Moon of October is closer to the Autumnal Equinox than the September Full Moon. Then, the Hunter's Moon is pushed-off until early November.

The Hunter's Moon, as with the Harvest Moon, is special, because it gave our ancestors more light in the evening, as the Sun was setting earlier each day. Usually, the Full Moon rises about the time of sunset (and sets around the time of sunrise). During the week around the time of the Harvest Moon, and the time of the Hunter's Moon, the time between sunset and moonrise is much shorter than at other times of the year.

On average, the Moon rises about 50.47 minutes later from one day to the next. However, during the week around the time of the Hunter's Moon and the week around the time of the Harvest Moon, the Moon rises only about a half-hour later each day, for several days before and after the Hunter's Moon or Harvest Moon, in mid-northern latitudes (and only 10-to-20 minutes later each day in much of Canada and Europe).

The reason for this is due to the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun, Moon, and planets through Earth's sky, which makes a narrow angle with the horizon this time of year. The inclination of the Moon's orbital plane causes the Moon to rise further north along the eastern horizon (as the rising of the Sun occurs further south along the eastern horizon), as we head towards the Winter Solstice [usually, December 21 or 22 - this year: Wednesday, 2022 December 21, 4:48 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) / 21:48 UTC].

It is this narrow angle which provides that moonrise occurs around the time of sunset, near the time of the Full Moon of September (for the Harvest Moon) and near the time of the Full Moon of October (for the Hunter's Moon). Hence, several evenings (before darkness has fallen) appear to have a rising Full Moon.

This means that, for a week around the time of the Harvest Moon, farmers had light into the evening which allowed them to finish harvesting their crops.

In the case of the week around the time of the Hunter's Moon, this gave our ancestors light in the evening to hunt more game, to save for the coming long, cold Winter months. By the time of the Hunter's Moon, the crops had all been harvested, ensuring that game could not find hiding places in farm fields, as fox and other animals tried to glean left-overs in the fields. Likewise, with many trees barren of leaves, it was easier for hunters to find their prey in the forests; of course, this depended a great deal on how early or late in October the Hunter's Moon occurred.

Also, at this time of year when hunters need moonlight the most, the Hunter's Moon appears larger and more prominent, due to the mysterious but well-known "Moon Illusion" that makes the Moon seem larger when it is near the horizon. And, while near the horizon, the Moon is often reddened by clouds and dust, creating the appearance of a large, rising red ball.

Some even liken a rising Harvest Moon or a rising Hunter's Moon to a rising "Great Pumpkin," of Peanuts comic-strip fame! In the Peanuts' network-television cartoon just before Halloween each year (originally aired on CBS-TV on 1966 October 27) titled, "Its the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown", the “Great Pumpkin” rises over the pumpkin patch to provide gifts to all good little boys and girls.

At this time of year, deer and other animals were fattening themselves for the long Winter. Hence, this was the perfect time for hunting these animals. The Hunter's Moon served as a warning, to both European farmers as well as North American tribes and early North American colonists, of the looming cold and snowy days of Winter.

Hence, the Hunter's Moon was often an important feast day in both Europe and America. One of these festivals, a reenactment (held on a weekend in October since 1968) of the gathering of French and Native Americans called the “Feast of the Hunter's Moon,” occurs each year at the site of Fort Ouiatenon, a mid-18th century French military garrison and trading post on the Wabash River near West Lafayette, IndianaThe first fortified European settlement in what is now the state of Indiana, the original fort was located approximately one mile down-river from Historic Fort Ouiatenon Park, where the festival now occurs.

In the Northern Hemisphere, Native Americans also called the October Full Moon the Blood Moon or Sanguine Moon. October is also known as the Dying Grass Moon, Dying Moon, Travel Moon, Autumn Moon, and Pumpkin Moon. American Indians were also known to call the Full Moon of October the Leaf-Falling Moon or the Nuts Moon.

In the Southern Hemisphere, the October Full Moon was known as the Egg Moon, Fish Moon, Seed Moon, Pink Moon, and Waking Moon.

For years when the Harvest Moon occurs in October (when the October Full Moon date is closer to the Autumnal Equinox than the September Full Moon date), the November Full Moon is then known as the Hunter's Moon.

Otherwise, the Full Moon of November, in the Northern Hemisphere, is generally known as the Beaver Moon. This was the time when Native Americans set-out beaver traps, before creeks and swamps froze-over, to ensure a good supply of warm furs for the coming Winter. Although beavers do not hibernate, by the following month the beavers would be in their lodges for the Winter, difficult for hunters to trap.

This beaver fur was its most usable at this time of year, both waterproof and warm. The furs also provided a special oil, used as a hair protector. Other researchers believe the Beaver Moon name came from the fact that beavers, themselves, are active building water dams,  preparing for Winter. The beaver was revered by the Native Americans, spiritually.

While most people consider the Full Moon of November as the Beaver Moon (in addition to the years when it is considered the Hunter's Moon), the Native Americans actually considered the whole Moon cycle (all four Moon phases) as the Beaver Moon (i.e. the Beaver Month for the 28.5-day lunar cycle). Often, Native Americans used the words "month" and "moon" interchangeably.

November's Full Moon sometimes is also referred to as the Frost Moon or Frosty Moon, Turkey Moon, and Dark Moon. And, some American Indian tribes referred to the November Full Moon as the Deer-Mating Moon or the Fur-Pelts Moon.

In the Southern Hemisphere, the Full Moon of November is known as the Corn Moon, Milk Moon, Flower Moon, and Hare Moon.

The Hunter's Moon in the Southern Hemisphere usually occurs in April, but sometimes in May, with the same advantages to Southern Hemisphere hunters as the Hunter's Moon in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, the Harvest Moon usually occurs in March, near the Vernal Equinox, but sometimes in April, with the same advantages to Southern Hemisphere farmers as the Harvest Moon in the Northern Hemisphere.

Internet Links to Additional Information ---

Hunter's Moon: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Full_moon#Harvest_moon 

Differences between Hunter's and Harvest Moons: Link >>> https://www.timeanddate.com/astronomy/moon/hunters.html 

Feast of the Hunter's Moon:

Link 1 >>> http://feastofthehuntersmoon.org/ 

Link 2  >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feast_of_the_Hunters%27_Moon

Related Blog-Posts ---

"Fall Begins at Equinox Thur. Evening." Mon., 2022 Sept. 19.

Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2022/09/fall-begins-at-equinox-thur-evening.html

 

"More Evening Light w/ Harvest Moon This Weekend." Tue. 2022 Sept. 6.

Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2022/09/more-evening-light-w-harvest-moon-this.html

Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss          

               Saturday, 2022 October 8.


                             Like This Post?  Please Share!

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gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Informal Science Educator & Communicator                                                               (For more than 50 years! - Since Monday Morning, 1972 June 12):
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/
Electronic Mail: < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/
SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/
Formerly Astronomical Observatory Coordinator & Planetarium Lecturer, original Buhl Planetarium & Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), Pittsburgh's science & technology museum from 1939 to 1991.
Formerly Trustee, Andrew Carnegie Free Library and Music Hall, Pittsburgh suburb of Carnegie, Pennsylvania.
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh: Link >>>  http://www.planetarium.cc  Buhl Observatory: Link >>>  http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2016/11/75th-anniversary-americas-5th-public.html
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago: Link >>> http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear: Link >>> http://johnbrashear.tripod.com
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries: Link >>> http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc

* Other Walsh-Authored Blog & Web-Sites: Link >>> https://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/gawweb.html

Friday, October 7, 2022

New NASA Laser to Look for Water on Moon

                                        man stands with a tiny laser - rectangle of metal - in a lab, whiteboard behind him.


Dr. Berhanu Bulcha, of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, displays a new, tiny laser that could be used to find water on the Moon. (Image Sources: NASA, Michael Giunto)

By Glenn A. Walsh

Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

A tiny, high-powered laser, developed by NASA, may help distinguish water from other hydrogen compounds on Earth's Moon.

Finding water (H2O) on the Moon, Mars, and other celestial bodies NASA astronauts plan to visit someday is essential for advanced exploration of these objects. In addition to drinking water, water is needed for rocket fuel and for creating oxygen (O2) for breathing. Previous experiments have inferred the existence of water on the Moon, but most existing detectors cannot distinguish between water and free hydrogen (H2) ions or hydroxyl (OH-).

Filling a gap in laser technology, NASA's new laser depends on an effect called quantum tunneling to generate a high-powered terahertz laser. Dr. Berhanu Bulcha, an engineer at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, intends to use a heterodyne spectrometer to specifically determine where water is located on the Moon. To do this requires a stable, high-powered terahertz laser, which was prototyped with Longwave Photonics, through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research program.

In a NASA news release, Dr. Bulcha said:

This laser allows us to open a new window to study this frequency spectrum. Other missions found hydration on the Moon, but that could indicate hydroxyl or water. If it’s water, where did it come from? Is it indigenous to the formation of the Moon, or did it arrive later by comet impacts? How much water is there? We need to answer these questions because water is critical for survival and can be used to make fuel for further exploration.”

Spectrometers detect wavelengths of light or spectra, to determine the chemical properties of a piece of matter. While most spectrometers operate over a broad section of the electromagnetic spectrum, heterodyne spectrometers are specific to the infrared or terahertz sections of the spectrum. Water, as with other hydrogen compounds, emit photons in the terahertz section of the spectrum.

A heterodyne spectrometer can distinguish subtle differences within in a bandwidth, such as the terahertz band. Combining a local laser source with incoming light, and then measuring the difference between the laser source and the combined light, can provide very accurate readings between different hydrogen sources.

According to Dr. Bulcha, traditional laser technology falls short within the section of the electromagnetic spectrum known as the terahertz gap, between microwave and infrared radiation.

The problem with existing laser technology,” Dr. Bulcha said, “is that no materials have the right properties to produce a terahertz wave.”

So, taking advantage of research in quantum physics, Dr. Bulcha and his team are developing quantum-cascade lasers. This cascade provides a stable, high-powered laser beam, while generating less voltage than normal lasers. While the laser beam from a quantum-cascade laser does spread-out more quickly than most lasers, Goddard's Internal Research and Development has been able to integrate the laser on a wave-guide, to tighten the beam.

This new laser's small size and low power consumption allows it to fit into a 1-Unit-sized Cube-Sat (very small satellite), about the size of a teapot. This includes the spectrometer hardware, processor, and power supply.

The small size would allow it to fit in a hand-held device, to be used by future astronauts on the Moon, Mars, and other planets, moons, and asteroids. Dr. Bulcha intends to make such a flight-ready laser available for NASA's Artemis program, returning astronauts to the Moon later this decade.

Internet Links to Additional Information ---

NASA News Release - "NASA Engineer Develops Tiny, High-Powered Laser to Find Water on the Moon": Link >>> https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2022/tiny-high-powered-laser-to-find-water-on-the-moon

Spectrometer: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectrometer

Terahertz Radiation: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terahertz_radiation

Terahertz Laser: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Far-infrared_laser

Quantum Tunneling: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_tunnelling

Quantum-Cascade Laser: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum-cascade_laser

Cube-Sat: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CubeSat

Related Blog-Post ---

"UPDATE: Live-Stream: NASA Artemis I to Orbit Moon - Launch Perhaps Nov. 12." Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2022/08/live-stream-nasa-artemis-i-to-orbit.html

Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss          

               Friday, 2022 October 7.


                             Like This Post?  Please Share!

           More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>> https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < spacewatchtower@planetarium.cc >.

gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Informal Science Educator & Communicator                                                               (For more than 50 years! - Since Monday Morning, 1972 June 12):
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/
Electronic Mail: < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/
SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/
Formerly Astronomical Observatory Coordinator & Planetarium Lecturer, original Buhl Planetarium & Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), Pittsburgh's science & technology museum from 1939 to 1991.
Formerly Trustee, Andrew Carnegie Free Library and Music Hall, Pittsburgh suburb of Carnegie, Pennsylvania.
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh: Link >>>  http://www.planetarium.cc  Buhl Observatory: Link >>>  http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2016/11/75th-anniversary-americas-5th-public.html
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago: Link >>> http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear: Link >>> http://johnbrashear.tripod.com
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries: Link >>> http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc

* Other Walsh-Authored Blog & Web-Sites: Link >>> https://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/gawweb.html