Tuesday, June 8, 2021

Annular Solar Eclipse Early Thur. w/Web-Casts

http://andrewcarnegie2.tripod.com/SolarEclipseSafetyCanali.GIF

NO ANNULAR SOLAR ECLIPSE / ANNULAR ECLIPSE OF THE SUN OR THE PARTIAL PHASES OF ANY OTHER SOLAR ECLIPSE / ECLIPSE OF THE SUN IS SAFE TO LOOK AT DIRECTLY, UNLESS YOU HAVE THE PROPER TRAINING AND PROPER EQUIPMENT TO DO SO SAFELY. OTHERWISE EYE-SIGHT COULD BE DAMAGED PERMANENTLY !!! This graphic shows one way to safely view an Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun or the partial phases of any other Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun by building a Solar Pinhole Viewing Box (a.k.a. Pinhole Camera) as shown above. After building this box, you must turn your back to the Sun and allow the light from the Sun to go through the pinhole and shine on a white piece of paper on the other end of the box (NEVER LOOK THROUGH THE PINHOLE AT THE SUN!).
(Graphic Source: Eric G. Canali, former Floor Operations Manager of the original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center - Pittsburgh's science and technology museum from 1939 to 1991) and Founder of the South Hills Backyard Astronomers amateur astronomy club.)

More information: Link >>> https://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/FAQ/soleclipse/solareclipseviewingtips.html

By Glenn A. Walsh

Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

Early Thursday, a somewhat unusual Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun will be visible in parts of Canada, Russia, and Greenland, with a Partial Solar Eclipse / Partial Eclipse of the Sun viewable in other parts of Canada, eastern and mid-western U.S., Alaska, Europe, and parts of Asia and Africa. The Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun can also be viewed on live-stream web-casts.

NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY AT ANY SOLAR ECLIPSE / ECLIPSE OF THE SUN, UNLESS YOU HAVE THE PROPER TRAINING AND PROPER EQUIPMENT TO DO SO SAFELY; OTHERWISE EYE-SIGHT COULD BE DAMAGED PERMANENTLY !!!

Internet links to live-stream web-casts of this eclipse are located near the end of this blog-post.

WHERE CAN THIS ECLIPSE BE SEEN ?

                    

This short video shows the extent of the June 10 eclipse on Earth (click anywhere on the image to start the video). The small oval shows the path of the Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun. The much larger light-gray circles show the paths of the Partial Solar Eclipse / Partial Eclipse of the Sun. (Graphic Source: NASA Scientific Visualization Studio)

Depending on your location, during, or shortly after, sunrise on Thursday morning (2021 June 10), an Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun will be visible in a narrow band (known as the Path of Annularity) starting in portions of eastern Canada (parts of the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, and the territory of Nunavut), northwestern Greenland, the North Pole and ending in Russia (part of northeastern Siberia). People in other parts of Canada, eastern and mid-western U.S., Alaska, and Europe as well as parts of the Caribbean, northern Asia, and northern Africa will see a Partial Solar Eclipse / Partial Eclipse of the Sun.

Of course, as with all astronomical events, visibility is weather-permitting 

WHEN CAN THIS ECLIPSE BE SEEN ?

This eclipse will occur in the early morning hours of Thursday, 2021 June 10 ---

(EDT = Eastern Daylight Saving Time / UTC = Coordinated Universal Time)

  • First location where partial eclipse begins: 4:12:20.2 a.m. EDT / 8:12:20.2 UTC

  • First location where full annular eclipse begins: 5:49:47.7 a.m. EDT / 9:49:47.7 UTC

  • Greatest eclipse (local Noon, northern Greenland): 6:41:56.3 a.m. EDT / 10:41:56.3 UTC

  • Primary Moon Phase: New Moon – Lunation #1218: 6:52 a.m. EDT / 10:52 UTC

  • Last location where full annular eclipse ends: 7:33:50.8 a.m. EDT / 11:33:50.8 UTC

  • Last location where partial eclipse ends: 9:11:21.4 a.m. EDT / 13:11:21.4 UTC

Each point where the Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun occurs, the time of Annularity or “Ring-of-Fire” does not exceed 3 minutes and 51 seconds.

The time this eclipse can be seen varies for each location on Earth. Of course, it can only be seen after the Sun rises, and in many locations the eclipse is well under-way by sunrise.

To find out when the Sun rises in your locale, you can submit your zip-code or city name to the web-site https://www.heavens-above.com and select the Sun rise and set page. For those who can receive the NOAA Weather Radio station in their area, often they provide sunrise and sunset times during their daily local, “Climate Summary” report. Newspaper and television weather reports sometimes also give the local sunrise and sunset times.

A Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun always comes a couple weeks before or a couple weeks after a Lunar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Moon. The June 10 eclipse follows the first eclipse of 2021, a Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon on May 26.

WHAT IS ---

An Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun ?

A Partial Solar Eclipse / Partial Eclipse of the Sun ?

A Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun occurs when the Moon comes directly between the Sun and the Earth and part or all of the lunar shadow falls on a portion of our planet. This is the type of eclipse that is dangerous to eye-sight to view directly, unless you have the proper training and proper equipment to do so safely.

                                     Showing the annular eclipse, the Moon moves in front of the Sun, blocking it, except for a ring around the edges. This creates a ring of fire look.

           View of Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun. (Graphic Source: NASA)

An Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun is somewhat similar to a Total Solar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Sun. However, unlike a Total Solar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Sun, the Sun is never completely covered by the Moon during an Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun.

During an Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun, the Moon blocks-out the vast majority of the Sun, except for the extremely bright edge of the solar disk. Hence, this type of eclipse is often referred to as a “Ring-of-Fire” Solar Eclipse, as the bright edge appears as a ring-of-fire around the dark Moon.

The reason an Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun does not completely block-out the Sun's light, as does a Total Solar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Sun, is because during an Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun the Moon is farther from Earth than normal and appears a little smaller as viewed from Earth. Hence, the Moon is too far, and appears too small, to block-out the entire solar disk.

A Partial Solar Eclipse / Partial Eclipse of the Sun occurs when only part of the Sun is blocked by the Moon. This is also true during the partial phases of a Total, Annular, or Hybrid Solar Eclipse / Total, Annular, or Hybrid Eclipse of the Sun. Usually, more of the Sun is still visible than during an Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun.

There is no time during an Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun when it is safe to look directly at the eclipse, unless you have the proper training and proper equipment to do so safely!

Also, there is no time during a Partial Solar Eclipse / Partial Eclipse of the Sun (or during the partial phases of any other Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun) when it is safe to look directly at the eclipse, unless you have the proper training and proper equipment to do so safely!

So, there is no time during the June 10 eclipse event when it is safe to look, directly, at the eclipse, unless you have the proper training and proper equipment to do so safely!

HOW TO SAFELY VIEW ANY SOLAR ECLIPSE / ECLIPSE OF THE SUN ---

  1. Internet - Watch the eclipse on an Internet, Live-Stream Web-Cast (Internet links to web-casts near the end of this blog-post). Of course, people outside of the path of an eclipse can also watch the eclipse on an Internet, Live-Stream Web-Cast, as well as people within the eclipse path where clouds obscure the view..

  2. Public Observing Events - Sometimes educational events for eclipse viewing are sponsored by a local planetarium or science museum, astronomical observatory, science department of a local college or high school, amateur astronomy club, or local library.

  3. Solar Pinhole Viewing Box - Create a Solar Pinhole Viewing Box, as displayed and described at the beginning of this blog-post.

  4. Solar Eclipse Glasses” - For a few dollars you can purchase Solar Eclipse Glasses. However, only use such glasses that are specifically labeled for solar eclipse viewing, preferably approved by the American Astronomical Society (to ensure you do not purchase fake eclipse glasses). Special Note: Solar Eclipse Glasses are very fragile and must be handled gently. Also, before each use during an eclipse, check the glasses by looking through the glasses at a lit light bulb; if you find any holes or tears in the glasses, that pair of glasses could damage your eye-sight during eclipse viewing and should be discarded.

  5. Shade Rating Number 14 Welder's Glass – Shade Rating Number 14 Welder's Glass (and only Welder's Glass Rated at Shade Number 14, the strongest shade available) can be used for safe eclipse viewing, but may be uncomfortable to some because the Sun still appears very bright through this glass.

THESE ARE THE ONLY SAFE WAYS TO VIEW ANY SOLAR ECLIPSE / ECLIPSE OF THE SUN !

Live, On-Line Web-Casts of June 10 Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun:

Link 1 >>> https://www.timeanddate.com/live/eclipse-solar-2021-june-10 

Link 2 >>> http://time.unitarium.com/events/eclipse/062021/live.html

Link 3 >>> https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cJ9fDbx7QkM   

SOLAR ECLIPSE / ECLIPSE OF THE SUN: TIPS FOR SAVE VIEWING:

Link >>> https://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/FAQ/soleclipse/solareclipseviewingtips.html

Internet Links to Additional Information ---

More Information on June 10 Eclipse: Link >>> https://buhlplanetarium4.tripod.com/astrocalendar/2021.html#soleclipse20210610

Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_eclipse

Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_eclipse#Types

Related Blog Posts ---

"Astro-Calendar: 2021 June / Solar Eclipse June 10." Tue., 2021 June 1.

 Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2021/06/astro-calendar-2021-june.html

 

""Super-Moon" Total Lunar Eclipse Early Wed. w/ Web-Casts." Tue., 2021 May 25.

Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2021/05/super-moon-total-lunar-eclipse-early.html

 

"Great American Solar Eclipse Next Monday: Some Ways to See It Safely." Mon., 2017 Aug. 14.

Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2017/08/great-american-solar-eclipse-next-mon.html

Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss.

                 Tuesday, 2021 June 8.

                             Like This Post?  Please Share!

           More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>> https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower

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                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
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gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Informal Science Educator & Communicator:
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/
Electronic Mail: < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/
SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/
Formerly Astronomical Observatory Coordinator & Planetarium Lecturer, original Buhl Planetarium & Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), Pittsburgh's science & technology museum from 1939 to 1991.
Formerly Trustee, Andrew Carnegie Free Library and Music Hall, Pittsburgh suburb of Carnegie, Pennsylvania.
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh: Link >>>  http://www.planetarium.cc  Buhl Observatory: Link >>>  http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2016/11/75th-anniversary-americas-5th-public.html
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago: Link >>> http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear: Link >>> http://johnbrashear.tripod.com
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries: Link >>> http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc

Saturday, June 5, 2021

Laser Pulses: Faster Than Speed-of-Light?

An image of our Sun, which is a natural fusion energy reactor. Research indicating faster-than-light laser pulses could help develop artificial and clean fusion energy reactors on Earth.

(Image Sources: Wikipedia.org, By NASA Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres and Yohkoh Legacy data Archive - NASA Goddard Laboratory for Atmosphereshttp://rsd.gsfc.nasa.gov/rsd/images/yohkoh.htmlhttp://rsd.gsfc.nasa.gov/rsd/images/yohkoh_l.gifYohkoh mission of ISAS, Japan. The Yohkoh Soft X-ray telescope was prepared by the Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and the University of Tokyo with the support of NASA and ISAS.http://ylstone.physics.montana.edu/ylegacy/, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=38853089)

By Glenn A. Walsh

Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

Many people have heard that Albert Einstein, in his Special Theory of Relativity, sets-up a “cosmic speed limit” which forbids anything from traveling faster than the speed-of-light. Well, scientists now claim that a laser pulse can move slower or faster than the speed-of-light, in special circumstances.

The speed-of-light is defined, precisely, as 299,792,458 meters-per-second, which also translates to 186,282.39705 miles-per-second. And, this “cosmic speed limit” has always referred to light or anything in the electromagnetic spectrum, conventional matter, energy, or any signal carrying information, passing through a vacuum.

Now, scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics in Rochester, New York have succeeded in both slowing-down and speeding-up the transmission of a laser pulse through hot plasma. This research was outlined in a paper titled, "Slow and Fast Light in Plasma Using Optical Wave Mixing", published in the journal Physical Review Letters on 2021 May 19.

In these hot swarms of charged particles, the researchers have been able to fine-tune the speed of a laser beam from one-tenth the speed-of-light to more than 30 per-cent faster than the speed-of-light! The scientists emphasize that, in these cases, the laser pulses can exceed the speed-of-light, without violating Dr. Einstein's “cosmic speed limit” or any other laws of physics.

Electromagnetism mandates that individual photons must stay within the “cosmic speed limit”. However, within certain frequencies, pulses of photons create regular light waves.

What is called “group velocity” describes the rate at which whole groups of light waves move through a medium. Depending on the specific electromagnetic conditions of the medium, the group velocity can be tweaked to slow-down or speed-up.

In these experiments, the researchers did this by using a laser to strip-away electrons from hydrogen (H) and helium (He) ions. They were, then, able to use a second laser to change the group velocity of light pulses from the first laser.

These experiments will not lead to “Star Trek”-type faster-than-light travel anytime in the foreseeable future. However, it could lead to breakthroughs in advanced technologies.

This could be particularly true for laser technologies. It could lead to much more powerful lasers, a research emphasis at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

The problem with traditional laser technology is that as the energy increases, their solid-state components tend to get damaged. This problem could be solved by using streams of plasma to amplify or change the light characteristics.

Clean fusion energy and speeding-up research particle accelerators are just two of the applications which could benefit from these more powerful lasers.

 Internet Links to Additional Information ---

More Details on This Research: Link >>> https://www.sciencealert.com/pulses-of-light-can-break-the-universal-speed-limit-and-it-s-been-seen-inside-plasma 

Research Paper Abstract: Link >>> https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103 /PhysRevLett.126.205001 

Speed-of-Light: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speed_of_light 

Laser: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser 

Plasma: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma_(physics)

Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss.

                 Saturday, 2021 June 5.

                             Like This Post?  Please Share!

           More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>> https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < spacewatchtower@planetarium.cc >.

gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Informal Science Educator & Communicator:
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/
Electronic Mail: < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/
SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/
Formerly Astronomical Observatory Coordinator & Planetarium Lecturer, original Buhl Planetarium & Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), Pittsburgh's science & technology museum from 1939 to 1991.
Formerly Trustee, Andrew Carnegie Free Library and Music Hall, Pittsburgh suburb of Carnegie, Pennsylvania.
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh: Link >>>  http://www.planetarium.cc  Buhl Observatory: Link >>>  http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2016/11/75th-anniversary-americas-5th-public.html
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago: Link >>> http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear: Link >>> http://johnbrashear.tripod.com
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries: Link >>> http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc

Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Astro-Calendar: 2021 June / Solar Eclipse June 10

 Annular solar eclipse

Image of a 2012 May 20  Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun, what some call a "Ring of Fire" Eclipse due to the edge of the solar disk still visible while the Moon completely blocks light from the rest of the Sun. People in portions of Russia (part of northeastern Siberia), northwestern Greenland, the North Pole, and eastern Canada (parts of the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, and the territory Nunavut) will view an Annular Solar Eclipse on June 10. People in other parts of Canada, northeastern U.S., and Alaska will see a Partial Solar Eclipse / Partial Eclipse of the Sun.

Details: Link >>> https://buhlplanetarium4.tripod.com/astrocalendar/2021.html#soleclipse20210610 

NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY AT ANY SOLAR ECLIPSE / ECLIPSE OF THE SUN, UNLESS YOU HAVE THE PROPER EQUIPMENT AND PROPER TRAINING TO DO SO SAFELY !!!
SOLAR ECLIPSE / ECLIPSE OF THE SUN: TIPS FOR SAFE VIEWING

(Image Source: Wikipedia.org)

Astronomical Calendar for 2021 June ---
Link >>> https://buhlplanetarium4.tripod.com/astrocalendar/2021.html#jun

 Related Blog Post ---

"Astro-Calendar: 2021 May / Total Lunar Eclipse May 26." Sat., 2021 May 1.

Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2021/05/astro-calendar-2021-may-total-lunar.html


Source: Friends of the Zeiss.
            Tuesday, 2021 June 1.

                             Like This Post?  Please Share!

            More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>> https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < spacewatchtower@planetarium.cc >.

gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Informal Science Educator & Communicator:
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/
Electronic Mail: < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/
SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/
Formerly Astronomical Observatory Coordinator & Planetarium Lecturer, original Buhl Planetarium & Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), Pittsburgh's science & technology museum from 1939 to 1991.
Formerly Trustee, Andrew Carnegie Free Library and Music Hall, Pittsburgh suburb of Carnegie, Pennsylvania.
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh: Link >>>  http://www.planetarium.cc  Buhl Observatory: Link >>>  http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2016/11/75th-anniversary-americas-5th-public.html
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago: Link >>> http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear: Link >>> http://johnbrashear.tripod.com
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries: Link >>> http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc

 

Tuesday, May 25, 2021

"Super-Moon" Total Lunar Eclipse Early Wed. w/ Web-Casts

A telescopic visualization of the 2021 total lunar eclipse.

This is a "telescopic visualization" of what NASA believes the 2021 May 26 Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon will look like in the sky.

(Image Source: NASA Scientific Visualization Studio)

By Glenn A. Walsh

Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

What some call a “Super-Moon” Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon will be visible to many people in the western part of North America, as well as Hawaii, early Wednesday morning, while the people in the central part of the continent can see the beginning of the Eclipse right before sunrise. However, Internet web-casts of the entire event will be available for those who can not see the event out-doors.

A Lunar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Moon is the type of Eclipse that is safe to watch, outside directly, with the naked-eyes (one-power), binoculars, or a telescope.

The May 26 Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon will be visible just before sunrise for much of the western half of North America, southern Alaska, Mexico, and the southern part of South America. In Hawaii and much of Oceania, the Eclipse will be seen in the middle of the night. On the evening of May 26 (local time), the Eclipse can be seen in Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia, Japan, the eastern portion of China, as well as the eastern portion of Russia.

A Partial Lunar Eclipse / Partial Eclipse of the Moon will be visible in the central portions of North America plus Puerto Rico, but not eastern portions of Pennsylvania, New York, Delaware or Ontario. New Jersey, New England, Quebec, and the Maritime Provinces of Canada will not see any of this Eclipse, directly.

For those viewing from the western part of North America, note that as the Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon enters the Totality Phase, when the Earth's shadow completely covers the Moon, the Moon will be low on the western horizon, getting ready to set. So, you want to make sure you have a good view of the western horizon, without obstructions such as buildings, trees, or hills, to be sure you can see the Eclipse Total Phase.

Of course, visibility of any “Super-Moon”, Full Moon, or Lunar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Moon is dependent on local weather conditions. For areas where sky conditions are poor, as well as in areas where the Eclipse will not be visible at all, Internet web-casts of the event will be available (links to these web-casts are listed near the end of this blog-post).

Here are the major stages of this Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon –--

Wednesday Morning, 2021 May 26 -

[Eastern Daylight Saving Time (EDT) / Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)]

(Note that a Lunar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Moon is the only type of Eclipse where the times of Eclipse are the same world-wide, when using Coordinated Universal Time. Everyone on the dark or night side of Earth can view this Eclipse in the sky, weather-permitting.)

Monthly Lunar Perigee (Moon closest to Earth) - CLOSEST LUNAR PERIGEE OF 2021

(222,022.76207 statute miles / 357,311 kilometers ) --- May 25, 10:00 p.m. EDT / May 26, 2:00 UTC

Penumbral Lunar Eclipse Begins --- 4:47:39 a.m. EDT / 8:47:39 UTC

Partial Lunar Eclipse Begins --- 5:44:59 a.m. EDT / 9:44:59 UTC

Total Lunar Eclipse Begins --- 7:11:27 a.m. EDT / 11:11 27 UTC

Primary Moon Phase - Full Moon --- 7:14 a.m. EDT / 11:14 UTC

Greatest Lunar Eclipse --- 7:18:42.7 a.m. EDT / 11:18:42.7 UTC

Total Lunar Eclipse Ends --- 7:25:58 a.m. EDT / 11:25:58 UTC

Partial Lunar Eclipse Ends --- 8:52:26 a.m. EDT / 12:52:26 UTC

Penumbral Lunar Eclipse Ends  --- 9:49:47 a.m. EDT / 13:49:47 UTC

The Moon's orbit is slightly tilted, so most months at Full Moon Phase, the Moon moves above or below the Earth's shadow, with no Eclipse. For the May 26 Eclipse, the Moon barely slips fully into the edge of Earth's Umbra shadow, as seen from Earth, so an edge of the Moon may not seem as dark as it would in an Eclipse where the Moon travels near the center of the Umbra. So, Eclipse Totality this time will be shorter than usual, in fact, only slightly longer than the shortest duration possible.

So, with this celestial event, we will actually be observing three events: the monthly Full Moon, a so-called “Super-Moon” also known as a Perigee Full Moon, and a Lunar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Moon.

“Super-Moon”

When closer to the Earth, the Moon often looks slightly larger (not more than 6-to-7 per-cent larger) and slightly brighter (not more than 12-to-14 per-cent brighter) than normal. Hence, when Lunar Perigee occurs close to the time of Full Moon, some refer to this Full Moon as a “Super-Moon.”

A so-called “Super-Moon” appears a little larger and brighter in the sky, than the Moon normally appears, because it is closer to the Earth than usual. In fact, the Full Moon of May will be the closest Full Moon to the Earth for the entire year!

This is also known as a Perigee Full Moon, since the this month's Full Moon occurs very close to the time of Perigee, the time point when the Moon approaches closest to Earth in its orbit. The Moon will reach Perigee, 222,022.76207 statute miles / 357,311 kilometers from the Earth, on May 25 at 10:00 p.m. EDT / May 26 at 2:00 UTC.

The actual Primary Full Moon Phase occurs just 9 hours and 14 minutes later: May 26, 7:14 a.m. EDT / 11:14 UTC. Due to the closeness of Lunar Perigee and the Full Moon, larger than normal tides are predicted along ocean coast-lines on May 26.

Lunar /Eclipse / Eclipse of the Moon

A Lunar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Moon occurs when the orbit of the Moon brings our natural satellite into the Earth's shadow (shadow caused by the Earth completely blocking light from the Sun). The Earth's shadow, extending into Outer Space from the dark or night side of Earth, is divided into two sections: the dim Penumbra shadow, which encircles the deeper Umbra shadow.

A Lunar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Moon always occurs near the time, and including the time, of a Full Moon. Native Americans called the Full Moon of May the Flower Moon, but, more on that later.

When the Earth's dim shadow, known as the Penumbra, falls on the Moon, it is called a Penumbral Lunar Eclipse / Penumbral Eclipse of the Moon. Because the Earth's shadow is dim in this case, this type of Eclipse is difficult to discern.

When the Earth's deep shadow, known as the Umbra, falls on only part of the Moon's surface, this is known as a Partial Lunar Eclipse / Partial Eclipse of the Moon. This is more easily visible, if you are in the right location and weather conditions are acceptable.

A Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon is when the Earth's deep shadow, or Umbra, completely envelops the Moon. Usually, a Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon only occurs once every 2.5 years, approximately, as seen from someplace in the world; the last one happened on 2019 January 20 / 21. However, the next one will be seen in North America almost exactly a year from now on 2022 May 15 / 16.

Of course, "Totality" / Total Phase of the Eclipse is the most impressive part of the Eclipse, what most people wait to see. The Partial Phases of the Eclipse are when a piece of the Moon seems missing, as the Moon moves further into the Earth's main shadow known as the Umbra, or as the Eclipse is ending and the Moon is further moving out of the Earth's Umbra.

The Penumbral Phases of the Eclipse are difficult to see, as the Moon moves into or out of the Earth's secondary shadow or Penumbra. In this case, one would not see any chunks or bites taken out of the Moon's disk, as one would see when the Moon moves into the Umbra shadow during the Partial Phases. Instead, if your eyes are very good, you may notice a slight dimming of the light coming from the Moon, as the Moon moves further into the Penumbral shadow

Often, particularly during the middle of a Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon, the Moon will not disappear from view but can be seen with an orange or reddish tint, what some call "blood red." If the Earth had no atmosphere, likely no sunlight would reach the Moon during a Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon, and there would be no "Blood Moon;" the Moon would seem to completely disappear.

Although no direct sunlight reaches the Moon during a Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon, the Earth's atmosphere refracts the sunlight around our planet allowing a portion of the sunlight to continue to be transmitted to the Moon. However, the refracted light reaching the Moon is primarily in the yellow, orange, and red portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (the Earth's atmosphere filters-out the violet, blue, and green colors), as with orange or red-tinted sunrises and sunsets (during such a Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon, a person standing on the side of the Moon facing Earth could see all Earth sunrises and sunsets simultaneously, as they viewed the Earth in a Total Solar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Sun --- but, even on the Moon, a person would need to take strong precautions to ensure their eye-sight is not damaged by such a view). Hence, it is orange or red light that is reflected from the Moon back into your eyes during a Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon.

A so-called “Super-Moon” Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon is somewhat rare. Such an Eclipse has not occurred in nearly six years.

Full Moon of May

Near the mid-point of Spring, with flowers finally starting to bloom after the long cold Winter, the May Full Moon is primarily known as the Flower Moon to Native Americans.

Due to increasing fertility in mid-Spring, along with the end of hard frosts and warmer temperatures better attuned to the bearing of young and the raising of crops, in Earth's Northern Hemisphere the Full Moon of May is also known as the Mother's Moon and the Corn-Planting Moon or just Planting Moon. And, as Beltaine (the astronomical Cross-Quarter Day better known as May Day) was the time when farmers in Medieval Europe would move their cows to the better Summer pastures, it was also known as the Milk Moon.

As the Southern Hemisphere begins to enter their colder months, their names for the Full Moon of May include Hunter's Moon, Beaver Moon, and Frost Moon.

Internet Web-Casts Available for those not able to view the Eclipse directly ----

Griffith Observatory, Los Angeles: Link >>> https://griffithobservatory.org/event/lunar-eclipse-online-broadcast-may-26-2021/ 

Chabot Space & Science Center, Oakland CA: Link >>> https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4bhus6UBPcg 

TimeandDate.com: Link >>> https://www.timeanddate.com/live/eclipse-lunar-2021-may-26

Astronz, Auckland, New Zealand: Link >>> https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3xyYfkhjedw

 Internet Links to Additional Information ---

More on the May 26 Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon: Link >>>  https://buhlplanetarium4.tripod.com/astrocalendar/2021.html#luneclipse20210526

Maps of Areas of World & of United States Where This Eclipse will be visible: Link >>> https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4906

Lunar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Moon: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_eclipse

Eclipse: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eclipse

Earth's Moon: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon

Moon Illusion - Why the Moon looks larger, when it is low in the sky (NASA):
Link >>> https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2007/27jun_moonillusion

"Super-Moon": Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supermoon

Primary Phase - Full Moon: Link >>> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Full_moon

Full Moon Names ---

Link 1 >>> http://earthsky.org/astronomy-essentials/full-moon-names 

Link 2 >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Full_moon#Full_moon_names 

Link 3 >>> http://www.farmersalmanac.com/full-moon-names/

Related Blog-Posts ---

"Astro-Calendar: 2021 May / Total Lunar Eclipse May 26. Sat., 2021 May 1.

Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2021/05/astro-calendar-2021-may-total-lunar.html

 

"Sunday Night: Only Total Lunar Eclipse of 2019 w/Web-Casts." Fri., 2019 Jan. 18.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2019/01/total-lunar-eclipse-sunday-night-wweb.html 


"Total Lunar Eclipse Early Tue. Morning w/ Web-Cast." Mon., 2014 April 14.

 Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2014/04/total-lunar-eclipse-early-tue-morning.html

Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss.

                 Tuesday, 2021 May 25.

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           More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
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        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < spacewatchtower@planetarium.cc >.

gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Informal Science Educator & Communicator:
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/
Electronic Mail: < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/
SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/
Formerly Astronomical Observatory Coordinator & Planetarium Lecturer, original Buhl Planetarium & Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), Pittsburgh's science & technology museum from 1939 to 1991.
Formerly Trustee, Andrew Carnegie Free Library and Music Hall, Pittsburgh suburb of Carnegie, Pennsylvania.
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh: Link >>>  http://www.planetarium.cc  Buhl Observatory: Link >>>  http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2016/11/75th-anniversary-americas-5th-public.html
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago: Link >>> http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear: Link >>> http://johnbrashear.tripod.com
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries: Link >>> http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc

 

Friday, May 21, 2021

Large Solar Flares Imaged From Other Side of Sun

STEREO-As view of the CME

 This is a photograph of the first coronal mass ejection seen by Solar Orbiter, but this photograph comes from the NASA spacecraft Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory. The Solar Orbiter image, which is somewhat grainy, can be seen at this Internet link:

Link >>> https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2021/a-new-space-instrument-captures-its-first-solar-eruption 

(Image Source: NASA)

By Glenn A. Walsh

Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

Large solar flares, known as coronal mass ejections (CMEs), have been imaged on the opposite side of the Sun, from Earth, by a new NASA and European Space Agency (ESA) spacecraft. The new spacecraft, called Solar Orbiter, recorded these flares even before the probe's scientific mission had been officially underway.

Solar Orbiter imaged the first CME using the on-board Solar Orbiter Heliospheric Imager (SoloHI), which is used to monitor the solar wind, dust, and cosmic rays that fill the space between the Sun and the planets.

The Solar Orbiter observed the first CME on February 12, almost exactly a year from its 2020 February 10 launch at Cape Canaveral, Florida. At the time of the observation, Solar Orbiter was about 48 million miles / 77.25 million kilometers from the Sun, half the average 93 million-mile / 149.67 million-kilometer distance between the Sun and the Earth.

Also, at the time this CME was seen, the Solar Orbiter had just passed behind the Sun, from Earth's perspective. Mission scientists were surprised by the sudden solar flare, as they had not planned any observing until November, when Solar Orbiter's 7-year mission would officially begin.

“But since we planned this out, the ground stations and the technology have been upgraded,” said Robin Colaninno, principal investigator for SoloHI at the US Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. “So we actually got more down-link time for the mission than what was originally scheduled.”

Another imager on Solar Orbiter, the ESA’s Extreme Ultraviolet Imager and Metis, also caught pictures of the CME. Other solar spacecraft, including NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory,also saw this solar event.

Solar Orbiter has taken the closest photographs of the Sun ever taken, to-date. It plans to get even closer to the Sun. Eventually, it will be in an orbit that periodically takes the spacecraft within 26 million miles / 41.84 million kilometers of the Sun. To travel to the Sun, and to reach the special orbit it needs for observations, it used both Earth and Venus in gravity-assist maneuvers.

NASA has been watching CMEs for decades and for good reason. The electron particles sprayed into space from a CME can damage spacecraft and hurt human tissue beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. It can also cause damage to electronics and power grids on Earth.

One hundred years ago this month (1921 May 13 to 15), a very powerful CME caused disruption to telegraph service in the United States as well as in Australia, Brazil, Denmark, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, A news report in the Ottawa Journal stated that long-distance telephone lines in the Canadian province of New Brunswick had been burned-out by the powerful geomagnetic storm. A telegraph exchange in Sweden also burst into flames, due to the excess electrical currents induced by geomagnetic activity.

This event is also known as the “New York Railroad Super-storm.” The CME was so powerful that it disrupted the signaling system on the New York Central Railroad, bringing railroad operations to a temporary halt. The Central New England Railroad Station, in the small town of Brewster, New York, burned-down from a fire started at the railroad station switch-board.

But, this was not first time that a CME affected telegraph service. The “Carrington Event” of 1859 September 1 and 2 resulted in the failure of telegraph systems all over North America and Europe. Telegraph operators were shocked and some fires were started from the extra electric charges in telegraph wires.

While the Carrington Event is often cited as the worst such event in history, scientists now conclude that the 1921 event was equally as strong.

But even a milder event can cause disruptions. A CME on 1989 March 13 caused a failure of the electric grid in the Canadian province of Quebec, resulting in a major power black-out for the entire province.

So, NASA is very interested in learning as much about this solar phenomena as possible, to try to predict future CMEs and find ways to possibly avoid the dangers a strong CME could cause on our ever expanding electronic and computerized society.

 Internet Links to Additional Information ---

 NASA News Release: "A New Space Instrument Captures Its First Solar Eruption." Link >>> https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2021/a-new-space-instrument-captures-its-first-solar-eruption 

Coronal Mass Ejection (CME): Link >>>  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronal_mass_ejection

Solar Orbiter: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_Orbiter 

Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STEREO

 Great Geomagnetic Storm of 1921: Link >>> https://spaceweatherarchive.com/2020/05/12/the-great-geomagnetic-storm-of-may-1921/

Carrington Event of 1859: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrington_Event

 Major Geomagnetic Storm of 1989: Link >>> https://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/sun_darkness.html

 Related Blog-Posts --

"160th Anniv: Carrington Event Solar Mega-Storm." Tue., 2019 Sept. 3.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2019/09/astro-calendar-sep-160th-anniv.html

 

"Largest Sunspot in 24 Years Returns for 2nd Month." Sun., 2014 Nov. 23.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2014/11/largest-sunspot-in-24-years-returns-for.html

Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss.

                 Friday, 2021 May 21.

                             Like This Post?  Please Share!

           More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>> https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < spacewatchtower@planetarium.cc >.

gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Informal Science Educator & Communicator:
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/
Electronic Mail: < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/
SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/
Formerly Astronomical Observatory Coordinator & Planetarium Lecturer, original Buhl Planetarium & Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), Pittsburgh's science & technology museum from 1939 to 1991.
Formerly Trustee, Andrew Carnegie Free Library and Music Hall, Pittsburgh suburb of Carnegie, Pennsylvania.
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh: Link >>>  http://www.planetarium.cc  Buhl Observatory: Link >>>  http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2016/11/75th-anniversary-americas-5th-public.html
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago: Link >>> http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear: Link >>> http://johnbrashear.tripod.com
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries: Link >>> http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc

 

Saturday, May 1, 2021

Astro-Calendar: 2021 May / Total Lunar Eclipse May 26


This is a photograph of  the phase of totality during the Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon that occurred on 2019 January 21. A Total Lunar Eclipse / Total Eclipse of the Moon will occur in the early morning hours of May 26. For parts of North America, the Moon will set and the Sun will rise during the middle of this eclipse.

(Image Sources: Wikipedia.org, By Giuseppe Donatiello from Oria (Brindisi), Italy - Total lunar eclipse on January 21, 2019, CC0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=76018812)

More Information: Link >>> https://buhlplanetarium4.tripod.com/astrocalendar/2021.html#luneclipse20210526

IT IS ALWAYS SAFE TO LOOK AT A LUNAR ECLIPSE / ECLIPSE OF THE MOON WITH THE NAKED-EYES (ONE-POWER), BINOCULARS, OR A TELESCOPE.

Astronomical Calendar for 2021 May ---
Link >>> https://buhlplanetarium4.tripod.com/astrocalendar/2021.html#may

 Related Blog Post ---

"Astro-Calendar: 2021 April / 1st Flight of Mars Helicopter in April"

Thursday, 2021 April 1.

Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2021/04/astro-calendar-2021-april-1st-flight-of.html


Source: Friends of the Zeiss.
            Saturday, 2021 May 1.

                             Like This Post?  Please Share!

            More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>> https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < spacewatchtower@planetarium.cc >.

gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Informal Science Educator & Communicator:
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/
Electronic Mail: < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/
SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/
Formerly Astronomical Observatory Coordinator & Planetarium Lecturer, original Buhl Planetarium & Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), Pittsburgh's science & technology museum from 1939 to 1991.
Formerly Trustee, Andrew Carnegie Free Library and Music Hall, Pittsburgh suburb of Carnegie, Pennsylvania.
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh: Link >>>  http://www.planetarium.cc  Buhl Observatory: Link >>>  http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2016/11/75th-anniversary-americas-5th-public.html
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago: Link >>> http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear: Link >>> http://johnbrashear.tripod.com
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries: Link >>> http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc

Wednesday, April 21, 2021

UPDATE: Watch Live: SpaceX Crew-2 Launch Early FRIDAY AM

The crew for the second long-duration SpaceX Crew Dragon mission to the International Space Station, NASA’s SpaceX Crew-2

NASA's SpaceX Crew Dragon Crew-2 are pictured at the SpaceX training facility in Hawthorne, California. Standing from left-to-right: Mission Specialist Thomas Pesquet of the ESA (European Space Agency); Pilot Megan McArthur of NASA; Commander Shane Kimbrough of NASA; and Mission Specialist Akihiko Hoshide of the JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency).

(Image Sources: SpaceX, NASA)

By Glenn A. Walsh

Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

UPDATE: Due to unfavorable weather conditions along the SpaceX Crew Dragon flight-path on Thursday, the SpaceX Crew-2 launch has been delayed until Friday Morning, 2021 April 23 at 5:49 a.m. EDT / 9:49 UTC; NASA-TV coverage begins Friday morning at 1:30 a.m. EDT / 5:30 UTC. Originally, the Crew-2 launch had been scheduled for Earth Day (Thursday Morning, 2021 April 22) at 6:11 a.m. EDT / 10:11 UTC, with NASA-TV coverage beginning at 2:00 a.m. EDT / 6:00 UTC. Crew-2 docking with the International Space Station is now scheduled around 5:10 a.m. EDT / 9:10 UTC on Saturday Morning, 2021 April 24; the docking had previously been scheduled at 5:30 a.m. EDT / 9:30 UTC on April 23.

The second operational launch of the SpaceX Crew Dragon capsule with four Crew-2 astronauts, to the International Space Station (ISS), will occur early on Friday morning. An Internet link to live coverage of the launch can be found near the end of this blog-post.

This SpaceX launch includes two NASA astronauts: Pilot Megan McArthur and Commander Shane Kimbrough, along with two international partner astronauts: Mission Specialist Thomas Pesquet of the ESA (European Space Agency) and Mission Specialist Akihiko Hoshide of the JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). SpaceX was founded in 2002 by billionaire tech entrepreneur Elon Musk.

The SpaceX Crew Dragon capsule with the Crew-2 astronauts, atop a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket, is scheduled to launch early on Friday Morning, 2021 April 23 at 5:49 a.m. Eastern Daylight Saving Time (EDT) / 9:49 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The launch will occur from Launch Complex 39A at the John F. Kennedy Space Center, at Cape Canaveral on Merritt Island, Florida. This is the same launch pad which saw the launch of the Apollo missions to the Moon, 1968 to 1972, and the Space Shuttle missions beginning on 1981 April 12; Space Shuttle missions concluded on 2011 July 21.

NASA-TV, available through the NASA Internet web-site, will provide live coverage of the launch, beginning on April 23 at 1:30 a.m. EDT / 5:30 UTC (Internet link to the NASA-TV web-page near the end of this blog-post). NASA will provide coverage of the pre-launch, launch, docking, and arrival activities for the second crew rotation flight of the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft. The Crew Dragon capsule is scheduled to dock with the ISS at approximately 5:10 a.m. EDT / 9:10 UTC on Saturday Morning, 2021 April 24.

Crew Dragon Crew-1, the first SpaceX operational launch and mission occurred in November of last year, when four astronauts traveled to the International Space Station for a half-year stay. The very first SpaceX astronaut mission to the ISS was a demonstration mission, launching two astronauts, on 2020 May 30. The Crew-2 astronauts will join the other members of Expedition 65, NASA astronaut Mark Vande Hei and cosmonauts Oleg Novitskiy and Pyotr Dubrov of Roscosmos (Russian Space Agency), for a six-month mission.

The main mission for Crew-2 is studying how human tissue is affected by micro-gravity. It is a mistaken belief that astronauts are “weight-less” or experience “0-G” (i.e. no gravity). Actually, some gravity always exists, even in Outer Space. Although it may seem that Earth gravity barely affects astronauts, this is not quite true. Astronauts, experiencing micro-gravity, are actually in free-fall (actually falling towards the Earth, but staying in Earth orbit due to the speed of ISS). With the ISS flying at an average altitude of 250 miles / 400 kilometers above the Earth, the astronauts only weigh about 10 per-cent less than what they would weigh on Earth. Also, gravity ensures that the International Space Station stays in orbit of our planet.

The micro-gravity research also will look at possible causes for suppressed immune response in micro-gravity. If micro-gravity affects the immune systems of astronauts, this would be an additional problem for long-term space travel.

Another important goal of the Crew-2 mission is updating the ISS solar power system. A Roll-out Solar Array (iROSA), compact solar panels that roll-out like a large exercise mat, is scheduled to be installed outside the ISS during this mission.

Originally, this launch was to occur just a couple hours prior to the official peak of the annual Lyrid Meteor Shower, which peaks at 8:00 a.m. EDT / 12:00 UTC on Earth Day (Thursday Morning, 2021 April 22). The Lyrid Meteor Shower consists of particles and dust from Comet Thatcher, which enter Earth's atmosphere as Earth traverses the particle stream in Outer Space.

Although for some people in eastern North America, this meteor shower peak occurs after sunrise. The best time to view most meteor showers is between Midnight and Dawn, when Earth is rotating into the meteor shower. So, people who wish to view this year's Lyrid Meteor Shower should do so a few hours before sunrise on Earth Day. However, this year the brightness of the waxing gibbous Moon may drown-out some of the dimmer meteors, so only bright meteors may be visible.

Internet Link to NASA Live-Stream of SpaceX Launch:

Link >>> https://www.nasa.gov/nasalive

Internet Links to Additional Informaion ---

 SpaceX Crew Dragon Crew-2 Mission -

Link 1 >>> https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/coverage-set-for-nasa-s-spacex-crew-2-briefings-events-broadcasts 

Link 2 >>> https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/news/crew-2-microgravity-science-space-station

Link 3 >>> https://www.nasa.gov/exploration/commercial/crew/index.html 

Link 4 >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SpaceX_Crew-2 

SpaceX >>> https://www.spacex.com/

NASA >>> https://www.nasa.gov/

Related Blog-Post ---

"Live Web-cast Sun. Night: Historic SpaceX, 1st Operational Astronaut Launch." Sun., 2020 Nov. 15.

Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2020/11/live-web-cast-historic-spacex-1st.html 


"UPDATE: Web & Cablecasts: Historic SpaceX Astronaut Launch Sat. Afternoon." Wed., 2020 May 27.

Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2020/05/web-cablecasts-historic-spacex.html 


"SpaceX Public, On-Line Simulator: Docking w/ Space Station." Tue., 2020 May 19.

 Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2020/05/spacex-public-on-line-simulator-docking.html

Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss.

                 Wednesday, 2021 April 21.

                             Like This Post?  Please Share!

           More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>> https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < spacewatchtower@planetarium.cc >.

gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Informal Science Educator & Communicator:
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/
Electronic Mail: < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/
SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/
Formerly Astronomical Observatory Coordinator & Planetarium Lecturer, original Buhl Planetarium & Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), Pittsburgh's science & technology museum from 1939 to 1991.
Formerly Trustee, Andrew Carnegie Free Library and Music Hall, Pittsburgh suburb of Carnegie, Pennsylvania.
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh: Link >>>  http://www.planetarium.cc  Buhl Observatory: Link >>>  http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2016/11/75th-anniversary-americas-5th-public.html
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago: Link >>> http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear: Link >>> http://johnbrashear.tripod.com
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries: Link >>> http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc