Monday, June 19, 2017

Special Solar Eclipse Stamp to be Unveiled During Stonehenge-Type Solstice Event in Wyoming

   http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/pix/graphics/solsticeimage008.png
This diagram shows the position of the Earth, in relation to the Sun, at the time of the Summer Solstice, as well as the other solstice and equinoxes of the year.
(Graphic Source: ©1999, Eric G. Canali, former Floor Manager of Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science and Founder of the South Hills Backyard Astronomers amateur astronomy club; permission granted for only non-profit use with credit to author.)


By Glenn A. Walsh
Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

This year in North America, the Summer Solstice occurs both on Tuesday and Wednesday, depending on which time zone is being considered. On Tuesday, the Summer Solstice is being celebrated in Wyoming, by the U.S. Post Office, by the unveiling of a very special postage stamp to commemorate the Great American Solar Eclipse which will occur on August 21. This unveiling will occur following a rather unique, Stonehenge-like Solstice event! And on Wednesday, NASA will hold a news conference, which can be seen on NASA-TV (including on the Internet), regarding the Great American Solar Eclipse.

                                                         Summer Solstice 2017

For 2017, the season of Summer begins in Earth's Northern Hemisphere (and the season of Winter begins in the Southern Hemisphere) at the moment of the June Solstice: Wednesday Morning, 2017 June 21 at 12:24 a.m. Eastern Daylight Saving Time (EDT) / 4:24 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

Now in North America, the Summer Solstice occurs early Wednesday morning only in the Eastern and Atlantic Time Zones, according to Daylight Saving Time. Elsewhere in North America, the Summer Solstice occurs late Tuesday evening.

In etymology, the word solstice comes from the Latin terms sol (Sun) and sistere (to stand still). In ancient times, astronomers / astrologers / priests recognized that on one day of the year (in the Northern Hemisphere, near the day we now call June 21), the Sun would appear to reach its highest point in the sky for the year. The motion of the Sun's apparent path in the sky (what is known astronomically, today, as the Sun's declination) would cease on this day, before appearing to reverse direction.

Today, we know that, while the Sun does have motions, it is actually the motion of the Earth tilted on its axis 23.43715 degrees / 23 degrees 26 minutes 13.7 seconds away from the plane of the ecliptic (Earth's orbital plane around the Sun), while revolving around the Sun, that causes the Earth's seasons. Hence, as the Earth arrives at the point in its orbit around the Sun, when the north polar axis is most directly inclined toward the Sun, this marks the Summer Solstice in the Northern Hemisphere and the Winter Solstice in the Southern Hemisphere.

Alternately, the Winter Solstice in the Northern Hemisphere occurs when the Earth reaches the point in its orbit when the North Pole is most directly inclined away from the Sun. And, conversely, at this time Summer begins in the planet's Southern Hemisphere.

Although the Summer months in the Northern Hemisphere are known for the year's warmest weather, the Earth is actually at the point in its orbit farthest from the Sun (astronomically known as the point of aphelion) around July 5; the Earth's closest approach to the Sun (perihelion) each year is around January 2. Solar radiation, and hence the heat from the Sun, depends on the length of daylight and the angle of the Sun above the horizon. The tilt of the planet's axis toward the Sun determines the additional and more direct solar radiation received by a planet's Northern or Southern Hemisphere, and hence, the warmer season of the respective hemisphere.

The Vernal Equinox, when the season of Spring begins in the Northern Hemisphere (and the season of Autumn begins in the Southern Hemisphere), occurs between the Winter and Summer Solstices when the Earth reaches the point in its orbit around the Sun when the Earth's axis is inclined neither toward nor away from the Sun. Likewise, when the Earth reaches the point in its orbit around the Sun, between the Summer and Winter Solstices, when the Earth's axis is inclined neither toward nor away from the Sun, this is known as the Autumnal Equinox (beginning of Fall or Autumn) in the Northern Hemisphere; at this time Spring begins in the Southern Hemisphere. And, half-way between the beginning points of each season are Cross-Quarter Days, each related to traditional holidays: Groundhog Day (February 2), May Day (May 1), Lammas Day (traditionally, the first harvest festival of the year on August 1), and Halloween (October 31).

In ancient times, the Summer Solstice was known as Midsummer Day, in early calendars observed around June 24. Such early European celebrations were pre-Christian in origin. Many will associate this ancient holiday with the famous William Shakespeare play, “A Midsummer Night's Dream.” Some speculate that the play was written for the Queen of England, to celebrate the Feast Day of Saint John.

As with the Roman Catholic Church's decision to Christianize the pagan Winter Solstice festivals with the introduction of Christmas Day on December 25, the Church began to associate the Midsummer festivals with the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist on June 24. In the Bible, the Gospel of Saint Luke implies that John was born six months before the birth of Jesus, although no specific birth dates are given.

             Unveiling of Great American Solar Eclipse Postage Stamp (#EclipseStamps)

                         Solar eclipse Forever stamps

On June 20, the U.S. Postal Service issues a unique postage stamp (Forever Stamp) marking the Great American Solar Eclipse (which will cross the continental United States from Oregon to South Carolina on August 21) at the University of Wyoming Art Museum. A first-of-a-kind stamp, the heat from the touch of a finger transforms the eclipsed Moon into the image of the Moon!

The postage stamp unveiling will occur at the Art Museum on the campus of the University of Wyoming (UW) in Laramie, Wyoming at 1:30 p.m. Mountain Daylight Saving Time (MDT) / 3:30 p.m. EDT / 19:30 UTC. The Post Office asks the public to share this news on Social Media, using the hash-tag #EclipseStamps.

The reason the U.S. Postal Service chose this particular Art Museum for the postage stamp unveiling is due to a rather unique, Stonehenge-like event that occurs each year at this museum, around the time of the Summer Solstice. An hour and a-half before the unveiling, on that Tuesday at 12:00 Noon MDT / 2:00 p.m. EDT / 18:00 UTC, visitors can see a single beam of sunlight shining on a Silver Dollar embedded in the floor of the UW Art Museum's Rotunda Gallery. Visitors are encouraged to arrive at the museum by 11:30 a.m. MDT / 1:30 p.m. EDT / 17:30 UTC, to view this rather unique architectural feature.

                           Countdown to the Great American Solar Eclipse

On the day of the Summer Solstice, Wednesday, June 21, 1:00 to 3:30 p.m. EDT / 17:00 to 19:30 UTC, NASA will hold a news conference regarding the Great American Solar Eclipse, which will be exactly two months from June 21. During the news conference, which can be seen on NASA-TV on cable television or streamed on the Internet, people can learn about:

  • How to experience the August 2017 eclipse through the eyes of NASA
  • Views from different areas of the country and how to prepare
  • Safe eclipse viewing practices
  • What causes an eclipse and why you should care
  • How to participate in events around the country
  • The unique research opportunities to study our Earth, moon and the sun
 Internet Link to NASA-TV: Link >>> https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/nasatv/
 
Internet Links to Additional Information ---

Special U.S. Postage Stamps Commemorating the Great American Solar Eclipse on August 21:
Link >>> https://about.usps.com/news/national-releases/2017/pr17_020.htm

Great American Solar Eclipse (Oregon to South Carolina) on August 21:
Link 1 >>> https://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEgoogle/SEgoogle2001/SE2017Aug21Tgoogle.html
Link 2 >>> https://eclipse2017.nasa.gov/
Link 3 >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_eclipse_of_August_21,_2017

Safe Public Viewing Event of the August 21 Great American Solar Eclipse in South Suburban Pittsburgh:
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/archivenews/releases/poster-flyer/2017SolarEclipse-Flyer.htm

Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun - Tips for Safe Viewing:
Link >>> http://andrewcarnegie.tripod.com/solflyer2.htm

More on the Summer Solstice -
Link 1 >>> http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/astronomy/SummerSolstice.html
Link 2 >>> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Summer_solstice

More on the Season of Summer: Link >>>
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Summer

More on the history of Midsummer: Link >>>
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midsummer

Summer "Solstice Day" Annual Free-of-Charge Day, 1985 to 1991, at Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center):

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2015/06/snowballs-on-first-day-of-summer.html

Special Thanks:
* John Sibenac, producer of bookmarkers from postage stamps.
* Eric G. Canali, former Floor Manager of Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science and Founder of the South Hills Backyard Astronomers amateur astronomy club.

Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss.
             2017 June 19.

                             Like This Post? - Please Share!

            More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>> https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
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gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/ >
& SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: < http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/ >
Electronic Mail - < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Astronomy Links: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#astrolinks >
Science Links: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks >
SpaceWatchtower Twitter News Feed: < https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower >
SpaceWatchtower Blog: < http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/ >
LibraryWatchtower Blog: < http://librarywatchtower.blogspot.com >
TransportWatchtower Blog: < http://transportwatchtower.blogspot.com  >
South Hills Backyard Astronomers Blog: < http://shbastronomers.blogspot.com/ >
Barnestormin Blog: Writing, Essays, Pgh. News, etc.: < http://www.barnestormin.blogspot.com/ >
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh:
  < http://www.planetarium.cc >
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago:
  < http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com >
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear:
  < http://johnbrashear.tripod.com >
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries:
  < http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc >
* Civil War Museum of Andrew Carnegie Free Library:
  < http://garespypost.tripod.com >
Duquesne Incline cable-car railway, Pittsburgh:
  < http://inclinedplane.tripod.com >
* Public Transit:
  < http://andrewcarnegie2.tripod.com/transit >

Wednesday, June 14, 2017

240th Anniversary of American Flag: Why Stars Were Used on the Flag

Photo
of historic & refurbished Buhl Planetarium flag pole
The American Stars and Stripes flies on the original, refurbished, flag pole next
to Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science, now
used by the Children's Museum of Pittsburgh.
(Photo taken 2013 November 20; Image Source: Friends of the Zeiss)

By Glenn A. Walsh
Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

On this Flag Day, 240 years ago, the American Continental Congress approved the design of the first American Flag. It is interesting, if still mysterious, as to why the Founding Fathers chose to include stars as a part of the “Stars and Stripes.” The American Flag was also called the “The Star-Spangled Banner” decades before this name was given to the American National Anthem.

June 14 is also the anniversary of the U.S. Army. Congress approved the establishment of the "American continental army" on 1775 June 14, 2 years before approval of the U.S. Flag.

The resolution for the first Flag Act was offered by the Continental Marine Committee of the Second Continental Congress:

   “Resolved, That the flag of the United States be made of thirteen stripes, alternate red and
   white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new Constellation.”

Consequently, the Continental Congress approved the resolution on 1777 June 14. Of course, each of the 13 stars displayed on the flag represented one of the original British colonies, which were now designated as states of the Union. No single star represents any particular state.

So, Congress did compare the new Union of 13 states to constellations in the night sky. Yet, the minutes of the Congress did not give any other details regarding the rationale for the design.

With scientists such as Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson as members of the Second Continental Congress, perhaps it is not surprising that the new United States of America was considered “a new Constellation.” However, some historians believe the term “a new Constellation” (and, perhaps even the idea of having a blue field full of stars on the flag) may have been included in the resolution in tribute to Philadelphia clock-maker and astronomer David Rittenhouse.

This resolution, which resulted in the Flag Act of 1777, was authored by Francis Hopkinson, who was a member of the Continental Congress, Chairman of the Navy Board under the Marine Committee (today, this position would be equivalent to Secretary of the Navy), and an admirer of University of Pennsylvania Astronomy Professor David Rittenhouse. In addition to his scientific pursuits, Professor Rittenhouse served as Treasurer of Pennsylvania from 1779 to 1787, and on behalf of the Federal Government he founded the U.S. Mint in 1792.

Legend has it that the first American Flag was designed by Philadelphia seamstress Betsy Ross in June of 1776, at the request of a committee composed of George Washington, Robert Morris, and George Ross (Betsy Ross' uncle-in-law). Historians now doubt this, as there is no record of any such committee.

It was not until a century later, around the time of the American Centennial, that the claim that Mrs. Ross designed the first flag was promoted by her grandson, William J. Canby. It was at this time that Mr. Canby made the claim in a historical research paper submitted to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. To verify this claim, he used information from his aunt, Clarissa Sydney (Claypoole) Wilson in 1857, 20 years after the death of Betsy Ross.

Ironically, it was on 1777 June 15, the day after the Continental Congress approved the Flag resolution, that Betsy Ross married her second (of three) husband, Joseph Ashburn. Apparently, her first husband, John Ross, had died from a gunpowder explosion, while guarding munitions during the Revolutionary War as a member of the local Pennsylvania Provincial Militia; however, some family members doubt this story.

It is now believed that Betsy Ross was just one of several Philadelphia flag makers for the government and military of the new nation.

Historical evidence (journals of the Continental Congress) has led to the conclusion that Francis Hopkinson actually designed the first U.S. Flag. Although, after several attempts to receive payment for the design of the flag, Congress refused to pay Mr. Hopkinson, stating that Mr. Hopkinson was already being paid as a member of Congress.

Although all new versions (with additional stars representing new states admitted to the Union) of the American Flag are now unveiled on Independence Day, Flag Day has been celebrated for more than a century as the anniversary of our nation's standard. The earliest suggestion for a Flag Day seems to have come from George and Victor Morris of Hartford, Connecticut in 1861. That year, the City of Hartford held an official ceremony commemorating Flag Day; however, it did not become a tradition.

In the following years, several schools and patriotic organizations promoted the idea of Flag Day. Bernard J. Cigrand, while a school teacher in Waubeka, Wisconsin in 1885, started a Flag Day tradition. He went on to promote Flag Day across the country, becoming President of both the American Flag Day Association and the National Flag Day Society. He is known as the “Father of Flag Day.”

Pittsburgh native William T. Kerr was also very active promoting Flag Day after he founded the American Flag Day Association of Western Pennsylvania in 1888. The very next year he became National Chairman of the American Flag Day Association, a position he held for 50 years!

Pennsylvania became the first state to declare Flag Day as a state holiday beginning on 1937 June 14, with the first official celebration in the Pittsburgh suburb of Rennerdale. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson issued the first Presidential Proclamation establishing Flag Day on 1916 May 30. In August of 1949, an Act of Congress established National Flag Day on June 14 of each year. William T. Kerr attended the signing of the Congressional Act, by U.S. President Harry S. Truman.

Actually, national flags were not common in the era of the American Revolution. This may explain why the Flag resolution came from the Marine Committee of the Continental Congress, and the resolution came between two other unrelated Committee resolutions. This resolution may have primarily been meant to approve the design of a Naval Ensign to fly on U.S. war ships.

On the very first flag, each of the 13 stripes also represented the first 13 states. However, on the second American Flag, which was officially unveiled on 1795 May 1, there were 15 stars and 15 stripes. The 2 extra stars and 2 extra stripes represented the admission to the Union of 2 new states: Vermont and Kentucky.

However, as other new states started to enter the Union, it quickly became apparent that adding a new stripe, for each new state, was not feasible. So the third American Flag, unveiled after the War of 1812 on 1818 July 4 (from then-on, all new flags were unveiled on Independence Day), reverted to 13 stripes, memorializing the original 13 colonies which broke-away from the British Empire on 1776 July 4.

Each new American Flag included new stars, for the new states recently admitted to the Union. In 1818, the new stars signified the admission of the states of Indiana, Louisiana, Mississippi, Ohio, and Tennessee—for a grand total of 20 stars.

With the admission to the Union of Arizona and New Mexico, the American Flag reached 48 stars, for all 48 states in the continental United States, in 1912.

After the admission of Alaska to the Union on 1959 January 3, for just one year the American Flag had 49 stars beginning on 1959 July 4. Interestingly, the Alaska state flag also includes stars forming the well-known Asterism of the Big Dipper (in the Constellation of Ursa Major). Additionally, the largest displayed star in the right-hand corner of the flag is Polaris, currently our North Star. Ursa Major, known as the Big Bear, symbolizes an animal indigenous to Alaska.

Another Asterism well-known in Earth's Southern Hemisphere, the Southern Cross, appears on the flags of five other nations: Australia (1 small, 5-pointed star and 4 larger, 7-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross Asterism along with a large, 7-pointed star known as the Commonwealth Star), Brazil (stars in position as viewed from Rio de Janeiro on 1889 November 15, including the Southern Cross Asterism; each star represents one of the Federated states / units), New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Samoa. Additionally, the flag of Uzbekistan includes 12 stars, which represent the 12 months of the Islamic Calendar and the 12 Constellations of the Zodiac.

The admission of Hawaii on 1959 August 21, after being a Territory for several decades, brought the Union to a total of 50 states, as it is today. The 50-star American flag was unveiled on 1960 July 4.

There are two reasons why 5-pointed stars were used on the American Flag, rather than 6-pointed stars which are used on some flags of other nations today. Five-pointed stars are the easiest to create on a fabric (Although, it is also considered a legend that Betsy Ross convinced George Washington that 5-pointed stars were easier and faster to create than 6-pointed stars.). Also, this minimalist design is the easiest to recognize from a ship miles away.

Actually, stars are now a fairly popular aspect of the flags of many states and nations, with many of these stars being a depiction of our own Sun. It seems that the stars on the American Flag were a good example, copied by other states and nations for their own flags.

State flags with one or more stars include Alaska [Asterism of the Big Dipper and Star Polaris (currently our North Star)], Arizona, Arkansas, Georgia (includes Confederate Battle Flag), Indiana, Mississippi (includes Confederate Battle Flag), Missouri, Montana (Rising Sun), Nevada, New Hampshire (Rising Sun), New Mexico (Sun), New York (Rising Sun), North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon (Rising Sun), Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas.

Additionally, Kansas includes a Sunflower on their flag. There are also stars on the flags of the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth (Territory) of Puerto Rico. The only Canadian Province to include a star on their flag is British Columbia (Rising Sun).

It should be noted that the flag popularly associated with the Confederate States of America (with a blue X containing 13 stars, on a red field) was really the Confederate Battle Flag. The 13 stars represented the 11 seceding states plus Kentucky and Missouri; although Kentucky and Missouri never officially seceded from the Union, the 2 additional stars represented rebel governments of those 2 states. The Confederate National Flag, known as the “Stars and Bars,” which contained 7, and later 13, stars for the seceding states, looked too much like the American Flag to be used on the battlefield.

Other nations which include one or more stars on their flags include Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda (a half Sun), Australia (1 small, 5-pointed star and 4 larger, 7-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross Asterism and a large, 7-pointed star known as the Commonwealth Star), Azerbaijan, Brazil (stars in position as viewed from Rio de Janeiro on 1889 November 15, including the Southern Cross Asterism; each star represents one of the Federated states / units), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Burundi (3 6-pointed stars), Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chile, Peoples' Republic of China, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominica, Ethiopia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Israel (6-pointed star), Japan as (Rising Sun), Jordan (7-pointed star), Kazakhstan (gold sun), Kiribati (a half Sun), Democratic Republic of Korea (North Korea), Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan (Sun), Liberia, Libya, Macedonia (Sun), Malawi (Rising Sun), Malaysia (14-point star), Marshall Islands (large white star with 4 large rays and 20 small rays), Mauritania, Micronesia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar (Burma), Namibia (Sun), Nauru (Sun), Nepal (Sun), New Zealand (Southern Cross Asterism), Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea (Southern Cross Asterism), Philippines (3 gold stars and 8-rayed gold Sun), Rwanda (Sun), St. Kitts and Nevis, Samoa (Southern Cross Asterism), Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Solomon Islands (5 stars represent number of provinces in 1977, 8 months before independence from the United Kingdom), Somalia, South Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Republic of China (Taiwan) (Sun), Timor-Leste (East Timor), Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, (5 stars represent 5 regions of country), Tuvalu (9 stars represent 9 islands of this mid-Pacific Ocean country), Uruguay (Sun), Uzbekistan (12 stars represent the 12 months of the Islamic Calendar and the 12 constellations of the Zodiac), Venezuela, Vietnam, Zimbabwe.

Internet Links to Additional Information ---

Flag of the United States of America ---
Link 1 >>> http://www.usflag.org/history.html
Link 2 >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_the_United_States

Flag Day ---
Link 1 >>> http://www.usflag.org/history/flagday.html
Link 2 >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_Day_(United_States)

National Flag Foundation, Flag Plaza, Pittsburgh: Link >>> http://www.usflag.org/nff.html

Francis Hopkinson: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Hopkinson

Betsy Ross: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betsy_Ross

Benjamin Franklin: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Franklin

Thomas Jefferson: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Jefferson

David Rittenhouse: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Rittenhouse

Asterism: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asterism_(astronomy)

Constellation: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constellation

Related Blog Posts ---

"160th B-day: Transit of Venus Admirer John Philip Sousa." 2014 Nov. 6.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2014/11/160th-b-day-transit-of-venus-admirer.html

 

"Bicentennial: National Anthem Inspired by British Rockets." 2014 Sept. 14.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2014/09/bicentennial-national-anthem-inspired.html

 

"Historic Buhl Planetarium Flag Pole Refurbished, Back-in-Use." 2013 Dec. 7.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2013/12/historic-buhl-planetarium-flag-pole.html

 

"U.S. Flag That Survived Challenger Disaster: Romney Displays." 2012 Nov. 4.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2012/11/us-flag-that-survived-challenger.html

 

"Most U.S. Flags on Moon Still Standing." 2012 July 28.

Link >>> https://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2012/07/most-us-flags-on-moon-still-standing.html


     Safe Public Viewing of the Great American Solar Eclipse
                         Monday, August 21, 2017
     Mt. Lebanon Public Library, South Suburban Pittsburgh
More Info: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/archivenews/releases/poster-flyer/2017SolarEclipse-Flyer.htm

Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss.
             2017 June 14.

                             Like This Post? - Please Share!

            More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>> https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < spacewatchtower@planetarium.cc >.

gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/ >
& SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: < http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/ >
Electronic Mail - < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Astronomy Links: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#astrolinks >
Science Links: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks >
SpaceWatchtower Twitter News Feed: < https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower >
SpaceWatchtower Blog: < http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/ >
LibraryWatchtower Blog: < http://librarywatchtower.blogspot.com >
TransportWatchtower Blog: < http://transportwatchtower.blogspot.com  >
South Hills Backyard Astronomers Blog: < http://shbastronomers.blogspot.com/ >
Barnestormin Blog: Writing, Essays, Pgh. News, etc.: < http://www.barnestormin.blogspot.com/ >
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh:
  < http://www.planetarium.cc >
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago:
  < http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com >
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear:
  < http://johnbrashear.tripod.com >
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries:
  < http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc >
* Civil War Museum of Andrew Carnegie Free Library:
  < http://garespypost.tripod.com >
Duquesne Incline cable-car railway, Pittsburgh:
  < http://inclinedplane.tripod.com >
* Public Transit:
  < http://andrewcarnegie2.tripod.com/transit >

Thursday, June 1, 2017

Astronomical Calendar: 2017 June

Solar eclipse Forever stamps
On June 20, the U.S. Postal Service issues a unique postage stamp
(Forever Stamp) marking the Great American Solar Eclipse (which
will cross the continental United States from Oregon to South
Carolina on August 21) at the University of Wyoming Art Museum.
A first-of-a-kind stamp, the heat from the touch of a finger transforms
the eclipsed Moon into the image of the Moon!
More info: Link >>> https://about.usps.com/news/national-releases/2017/pr17_020.htm
Safe Public Viewing of Eclipse in South Suburban Pittsburgh:
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/archivenews/releases/poster-flyer/2017SolarEclipse-Flyer.htm

Astronomical Calendar for 2017 June: 
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium4.tripod.com/astrocalendar/2017.html#jun

 Related Blog Post ---


"Astronomical Calendar: 2017 May." 2017 May 1.

Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium4.tripod.com/astrocalendar/2017.html#may


     Safe Public Viewing of the Great American Solar Eclipse
                         Monday, August 21, 2017
     Mt. Lebanon Public Library, South Suburban Pittsburgh
More Info: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/archivenews/releases/poster-flyer/2017SolarEclipse-Flyer.htm

Source: Friends of the Zeiss.
              2017 June 1.

                             Like This Post? - Please Share!

            More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>> https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < spacewatchtower@planetarium.cc >.

gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/ >
& SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: < http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/ >
Electronic Mail - < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Astronomy Links: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#astrolinks >
Science Links: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks >
SpaceWatchtower Twitter News Feed: < https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower >
SpaceWatchtower Blog: < http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/ >
LibraryWatchtower Blog: < http://librarywatchtower.blogspot.com >
TransportWatchtower Blog: < http://transportwatchtower.blogspot.com  >
South Hills Backyard Astronomers Blog: < http://shbastronomers.blogspot.com/ >
Barnestormin Blog: Writing, Essays, Pgh. News, etc.: < http://www.barnestormin.blogspot.com/ >
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh:
  < http://www.planetarium.cc >
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago:
  < http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com >
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear:
  < http://johnbrashear.tripod.com >
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries:
  < http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc >
* Civil War Museum of Andrew Carnegie Free Library:
  < http://garespypost.tripod.com >
Duquesne Incline cable-car railway, Pittsburgh:
  < http://inclinedplane.tripod.com >
* Public Transit:
  < http://andrewcarnegie2.tripod.com/transit >

Monday, May 22, 2017

Comet Johnson Getting Brighter in Small Telescopes

https://assets.cdn.astronomynow.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/02211027/Comet_C2015_V2_40x10s_2Apr2017_0044BST_v3.jpg
Image of Comet Johnson (C/2015 V2) at Apparent Visual Magnitude +8, with an obvious tail, photographed in the Constellation Hercules the Hero on the night of April 1-2 by Ade Ashford.
(Image Source: AstronomyNow Magazine from the United Kingdom)

By Glenn A. Walsh
Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

Comet Johnson (C/2015 V2) has now become the brightest comet visible in small telescopes and possibly binoculars. It will come closest to the Earth on June 5.

Currently, Comet Johnson is passing through the Constellation Bootes the Herdsman. An hour after sunset, it can be found about 40 degrees above the eastern horizon. It will pass Bootes' brightest star, Arcturus, on June 6. Comet Johnson is visible most of the night. It is highest in the southern sky around local Midnight.

Comet Johnson will appear as a diffuse white ball, looking nothing like the pinpoint-like stars or oval planets of our Solar System. Only in the larger, professional telescopes are the two tails visible. The larger one is the traditional dust tail, while a much thinner tail is composed of gas.

At closest approach to Earth, Comet Johnson will be at a distance of 0.812 Astronomical Units or 75,480,115.505697 miles / 121,473,471.0084 kilometers. Used by astronomers to measure the great distances within our Solar System, one Astronomical Unit (AU) is the average distance between the Earth and the Sun: 92,955,807.273026 miles / 149,597,870.70 kilometers.

Visible in small telescopes and binoculars evenings after dusk, the Comet currently shines at an Apparent Visual Magnitude +7.05. Comet Johnson will reach perihelion (closest approach to the Sun) on Monday Morning, 2017 June 12 at 5:31:39 a.m. Eastern Daylight Saving Time (EDT) / 9:31:39 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

In late June, after Comet Johnson reaches perihelion, it could possibly reach a maximum brightness of +6—which would be barely (particularly considering the diffuse nature of a comet) bright enough to be seen with the naked-eye under ideal conditions. However, it should continue to make a good target for small telescopes and, possibly, binoculars.

For the first part of Summer in the Northern Hemisphere, Comet Johnson will be particularly visible to northern viewers due to its favorable orbit, which has a high inclination of 50 degrees relative to the ecliptic. However, by the end of July this comet will become an almost exclusively Southern Hemisphere object, as it continues progressing southward in the sky.

On the evening of 2015 November 3, astronomer Jess Johnson discovered Comet Johnson as part of the Catalina Sky Survey. When first seen, the Comet had a very dim Apparent Visual Magnitude of +17, at a distance of 6.17 AU or 573,537,330.874568 miles / 923,018,862.219 kilometers.

This is the first and last time we will see Comet Johnson, at least in the Inner Solar System. Comet Johnson has a hyperbolic orbit. Once it goes around the Sun, it will move away and never come back, eventually leaving our Solar System for-good.

American astronomer Fred Whipple described a comet as a “dirty snowball.” Comets are a combination of rocks, dust, water ice, and other frozen gases, from the early days of our Solar System.

The solid core of a comet is known as the nucleus. Streams of dust and gas released from the comet, as it nears the Sun, form a thin atmosphere around the comet nucleus called the coma. The coma is composed mostly (90 per-cent) of water, with dust making-up the rest of the coma.

Most, but not all, comets have one or more visible tails. The tail(s), which is usually not visible in the Outer Solar System, is composed of dust and gases emanating from the comet, caused by solar radiation as the comet comes closer to the Sun; this radiation usually is too weak to create tails in the Outer Solar System. Normally, a comet's tail(s) points away from the Sun, no matter the direction of movement of the comet; hence, a comet leaving the Inner Solar System often has a tail pointing in the direction of the comet's motion.

Comets usually have a highly-eccentric, elliptical orbit around the Sun, which brings a comet into the Inner Solar System for a short time, while it spends most of its time in the Outer Solar System. Short-period comets originate in the Kuiper Belt, just beyond the orbit of the Planet Neptune, while long-period comets are thought to originate in the Oort Cloud, a spherical cloud of icy bodies beyond the Kuiper Belt.

Short-period comets may have an orbit of only a few years, while long-period comets, potentially, could have an orbit of several million years. Some comets have very short lives, and they disappear into the Sun before they can resume traveling to the Outer Solar System. Other comets, known as hyperbolic comets, go around the Sun once and never come back, continuing into Interstellar Space forever.

To more easily see comets, it is better to be away from city lights, as artificial lighting can drown-out the dimmer comets. Bright moonlight can also drown-out some of the dimmer comets, so monitor the Moon Phase on the monthly SpaceWatchtower Astronomical Calendar.

When looking for a comet, it is best to be in an area that gets a good view of the entire sky (with few obstructions such as buildings, trees, or hills). Of course, you definitely want an unobstructed view for the area of the sky where you expect to find the comet. And, if the comet is expected to be low on the horizon where you expect to view it, you want your observation site to be as high in elevation as possible.

Of course, viewing comets, like all celestial observations, are weather-permitting. If there are more than a very few clouds in the sky, a comet will be much more difficult to find.

And, you want to go out ahead of time, before you actually start looking for comets, to get your eyes accustomed to the dark sky. Dark-adapting your eyes for comet-watching could take up to a half-hour.

Internet Links to Additional Information ---

SpaceWatchtower Monthly Astronomical Calendar ---
Current Month (2017 May):
Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2017/05/astronomical-calendar-2017-may.html
Calendar Archives: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium3.tripod.com/Buhlnews.htm#astrocalarchiv

Comet: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comet

Comet Johnson (C/2015 V2) -
Link 1 >>> https://theskylive.com/c2015v2-info
Link 2 >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C/2015_V2

Related Blog Post ---

"4 Comets May Be Visible w/ Small Telescopes." 2017 April 12.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2017/04/4-comets-may-be-visible-w-small.html


     Safe Public Viewing of the Great American Solar Eclipse
                         Monday, August 21, 2017
     Mt. Lebanon Public Library, South Suburban Pittsburgh
More Info: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/archivenews/releases/poster-flyer/2017SolarEclipse-Flyer.htm

Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss.
             2017 May 22.

                             Like This Post? - Please Share!

            More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>> https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < spacewatchtower@planetarium.cc >.

gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/ >
& SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: < http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/ >
Electronic Mail - < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Astronomy Links: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#astrolinks >
Science Links: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks >
SpaceWatchtower Twitter News Feed: < https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower >
SpaceWatchtower Blog: < http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/ >
LibraryWatchtower Blog: < http://librarywatchtower.blogspot.com >
TransportWatchtower Blog: < http://transportwatchtower.blogspot.com  >
South Hills Backyard Astronomers Blog: < http://shbastronomers.blogspot.com/ >
Barnestormin Blog: Writing, Essays, Pgh. News, etc.: < http://www.barnestormin.blogspot.com/ >
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh:
  < http://www.planetarium.cc >
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago:
  < http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com >
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear:
  < http://johnbrashear.tripod.com >
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries:
  < http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc >
* Civil War Museum of Andrew Carnegie Free Library:
  < http://garespypost.tripod.com >
Duquesne Incline cable-car railway, Pittsburgh:
  < http://inclinedplane.tripod.com >
* Public Transit:
  < http://andrewcarnegie2.tripod.com/transit >

Wednesday, May 10, 2017

Citizen Science: Another Way to Help Scientists Search Our Universe


(Image Source: Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)

By Glenn A. Walsh
Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

Over the last few months, NASA and the Carnegie Institution for Science have started projects asking the general public to help scientists find other planets. Another Citizen Science project has also recently been unveiled, asking for help from the public to restore decades-old astronomy photographs. An Internet link to this project can be found at the end of this blog-post.

                                                   Astronomy Rewind

Astronomy Rewind is another initiative of the Citizen Science project known as Zooniverse, which asks the public to view and classify astronomy photographs from the 19th and 20th centuries. People can help to classify these old photographs into the proper categories of the Astronomy Image Explorer.

A service of the American Astronomical Society (AAS), the Astronomy Image Explorer contributes to a digital sky atlas originally developed by Microsoft Research, but now managed by AAS. These restored photographs will also join new photographs, such as those from the Hubble Space Telescope, in data-bases managed by NASA and other academic organizations.

Many of the images and maps, which appear on the Astronomy Rewind Internet web-site, come from past journals of the American Astronomical Society. These journals include the Astronomical Journal, Astrophysical Journal, ApJ Letters, and the ApJ Supplement Series, from an archive funded by NASA and housed at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Public assistance is sought for this project because computers are not very good in recognizing stars and other celestial objects in digitized images. Human eyes still have a much better knack for pattern recognition in such computer files.

“There's no telling what discoveries await,” says Alyssa Goodman of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, one of the project's founders. She went on to say, “Turning historical scientific literature into searchable, retrievable data is like turning the key to a treasure chest.”

Astronomy Rewind Citizen Science Project:
Link >>> https://www.zooniverse.org/projects/zooniverse/astronomy-rewind

Internet Links to Additional Information ---

News Release from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics - "With Astronomy Rewind, Citizen Scientists Will Bring Zombie Astrophotos Back to Life."
Link >>> https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/news/2017-11

More Citizen Science Projects:
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/FAQ/citizenscience.html

Related Blog Posts ---

"Public Invited to Search for Planets in Other Star Systems." 2017 March 27.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2017/03/public-invited-to-search-for-planets-in.html

"Citizen Science: Help NASA Find 'Planet Nine'." 2017 March 10.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2017/03/citizen-science-help-nasa-find-planet.html


     Safe Public Viewing of the Great American Solar Eclipse
                         Monday, August 21, 2017
     Mt. Lebanon Public Library, South Suburban Pittsburgh
More Info: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/archivenews/releases/poster-flyer/2017SolarEclipse-Flyer.htm

Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss.
             2017 May 10.

                             Like This Post? - Please Share!

            More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>> https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < spacewatchtower@planetarium.cc >.

gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/ >
& SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: < http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/ >
Electronic Mail - < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Astronomy Links: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#astrolinks >
Science Links: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks >
SpaceWatchtower Twitter News Feed: < https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower >
SpaceWatchtower Blog: < http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/ >
LibraryWatchtower Blog: < http://librarywatchtower.blogspot.com >
TransportWatchtower Blog: < http://transportwatchtower.blogspot.com  >
South Hills Backyard Astronomers Blog: < http://shbastronomers.blogspot.com/ >
Barnestormin Blog: Writing, Essays, Pgh. News, etc.: < http://www.barnestormin.blogspot.com/ >
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh:
  < http://www.planetarium.cc >
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago:
  < http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com >
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear:
  < http://johnbrashear.tripod.com >
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries:
  < http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc >
* Civil War Museum of Andrew Carnegie Free Library:
  < http://garespypost.tripod.com >
Duquesne Incline cable-car railway, Pittsburgh:
  < http://inclinedplane.tripod.com >
* Public Transit:
  < http://andrewcarnegie2.tripod.com/transit >

Monday, May 1, 2017

Astronomical Calendar: 2017 May

Downtown Mars, PA.JPG
The Martian New Year (the time of the Vernal Equinox in the Northern Hemisphere of Mars, beginning Mars Year 34) begins on May 4. NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are co-sponsoring a STEAM celebration in the Mars business district--that is, Mars, Pennsylvania (about 25 miles / 40 kilometers north of Pittsburgh). The New Year on Mars occurs every 686.98 Earth days; the next Martian New Years will occur on 2019 March 23 and 2021 February 7. Pictured is the Mars "Flying Saucer," located in a parklet in the middle of the Mars business district.
More information ---
Link 1 >>> http://www.marsnewyear.com/
Link 2 >>> https://stardate.org/radio/program/martian-spring-0
By coincidence, May 4 is also the annual "Star Wars Day" ("May the Fourth Be With You").
(Image Sources: Wikipedia.org , By Mvincec - Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3951658 )

Astronomical Calendar for 2017 May: 
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium4.tripod.com/astrocalendar/2017.html#may

 Related Blog Post ---


"Astronomical Calendar: 2017 April." 2017 April 1.

Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium4.tripod.com/astrocalendar/2017.html#apr


     Safe Public Viewing of the Great American Solar Eclipse
                         Monday, August 21, 2017
     Mt. Lebanon Public Library, South Suburban Pittsburgh
More Info: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/archivenews/releases/poster-flyer/2017SolarEclipse-Flyer.htm

Source: Friends of the Zeiss.
              2017 May 1.

                             Like This Post? - Please Share!

            More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>> https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < spacewatchtower@planetarium.cc >.

gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/ >
& SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: < http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/ >
Electronic Mail - < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Astronomy Links: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#astrolinks >
Science Links: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks >
SpaceWatchtower Twitter News Feed: < https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower >
SpaceWatchtower Blog: < http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/ >
LibraryWatchtower Blog: < http://librarywatchtower.blogspot.com >
TransportWatchtower Blog: < http://transportwatchtower.blogspot.com  >
South Hills Backyard Astronomers Blog: < http://shbastronomers.blogspot.com/ >
Barnestormin Blog: Writing, Essays, Pgh. News, etc.: < http://www.barnestormin.blogspot.com/ >
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh:
  < http://www.planetarium.cc >
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago:
  < http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com >
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear:
  < http://johnbrashear.tripod.com >
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries:
  < http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc >
* Civil War Museum of Andrew Carnegie Free Library:
  < http://garespypost.tripod.com >
Duquesne Incline cable-car railway, Pittsburgh:
  < http://inclinedplane.tripod.com >
* Public Transit:
  < http://andrewcarnegie2.tripod.com/transit >

Friday, April 21, 2017

Saturday: March for Science in Cities Around the World

Washington October 2016-6 (cropped) (cropped).jpg
The Washington Monument, on the Washington DC
National Mall, will be the beginning of the Washington
March for Science.
(Image Sources: Wikipedia.org , By Alvesgaspar - Own work, 
CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?
curid=56582162)

By Glenn A. Walsh
Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

On the annual Earth Day this Saturday a new event, the March for Science, is a series of marches and rallies which will occur in Washington DC and more than 500 other cities world-wide including Pittsburgh. According to the March for Science Internet web-site, “The March for Science is the first step of a global movement to defend the vital role science plays in our health, safety, economies, and governments.”

The organizers and supporters of the March for Science insist that it is a non-partisan event. The goal of the March for Science is to call for science which upholds the common good and provides for evidence-based information to be used for developing good public policy.

The March for Science was inspired by the Women's March held on January 21, the day after the inauguration of U.S. President Donald J. Trump. The organizers of the March for Science have been skeptical of the lower priority that the Trump Administration, thus far, has given to scientific issues related to public policies.

It is hoped that the March for Science will give greater exposure to all of the elements of science which provide us with the good quality of life we have today and impress upon policy-makers that advancement in the sciences is a necessity to maintain such a good quality of life. It is also hoped that the March for Science will inspire the public to engage policy-makers regarding the decisions being made, or neglected, regarding science public policy.

The March for Science in Washington, along with all satellite marches (including the one in Pittsburgh) is free-of-charge to the public and open to everyone! No prior registration is required. All events will go-on, rain or shine!

For people who do not live in or near Washington and would like to participate in a satellite march, the March for Science Internet web-site (link to this web-site at the end of this blog-post) provides a listing of all satellite marches that are currently planned.

In Washington, the March for Science will be an all-day event concentrating on the National Mall in Downtown Washington. The event begins at 8:00 a.m. Eastern Daylight Saving Time (EDT) on the National Mall just north of the grounds of the Washington Monument, on Constitution Avenue NW between 15th and 17th Streets NW.

The Washington event will include 21 science teach-in sessions, beginning at 9:00 a.m. EDT and running until around Noon, or a little after. The 18 organizations sponsoring these teach-in sessions include the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Anthropological Association, American Chemical Society, and the University of Rochester. Several other special events, as part of the March for Science, are also scheduled throughout the weekend at different venues in Washington.

The actual Washington March begins at 2:00 p.m. EDT. The March will form on the National Mall at the grounds of the Washington Monument. The March will proceed east on Constitution Avenue NW from 15th Street to 3rd Street NW, then south on 3rd Street NW terminating in Union Square.

In Pittsburgh, the March for Science will center on the University of Pittsburgh campus in the Oakland Civic Center section of the city. Scheduled for 12:00 Noon to 2:00 p.m. EDT, it will begin on Bigelow Boulevard between Fifth and Forbes Avenues [between the Cathedral of Learning and the William Pitt Student Union (originally, the historic Hotel Schenley)]. The main event will be a march completely around the large city block encompassing the University of Pittsburgh's signature, 42-story Cathedral of Learning (tallest academic building in the Western Hemisphere, second tallest in the World!).

Around 1:00 p.m. EDT, the Pittsburgh March will be followed by several speakers from the Pittsburgh scientific community in the closed block of Bigelow Boulevard (between Fifth and Forbes Avenues).

Friends of the Zeiss, parent organization of the SpaceWatchtower Blog and Twitter News Feed, will participate in the March for Science in Pittsburgh.

Friends of the Zeiss is a non-profit organization with the mission to promote Astronomy, Space Science, and other sciences to the general public through Internet web sites, SpaceWatchtower Blog, and SpaceWatchtower Twitter News Feed, as well as public observing sessions of special astronomical events and other public educational programs and services regarding Astronomy, Space Science, and other sciences. This organization also promotes the history and preservation of the historic equipment, artifacts, and building of Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science, including the Zeiss II Planetarium Projector (prior to 2002 dismantling, oldest operable major planetarium projector in the world!) and the fairly unique 10-inch Siderostat-type Refractor Telescope.

Internet Links to Additional Information ---

March for Science -
     Internet Web-Site: Link >>> https://www.marchforscience.com/
     Wikipedia Page: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_for_Science
     March for Science Pittsburgh: Link  >>> https://www.facebook.com/MarchForSciencePGH/

Related Blog Posts ---

"NASA & the Trump Administration." 2017 Jan. 23.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2017/01/nasa-trump-administration.html

 

"U.S. Presidential Candidates Answer Science Questions." 2016 Sept. 18.

Link >>> http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/2016/09/us-presidential-candidates-answer.html


     Safe Public Viewing of the Great American Solar Eclipse
                         Monday, August 21, 2017
     Mt. Lebanon Public Library, South Suburban Pittsburgh
More Info: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/archivenews/releases/poster-flyer/2017SolarEclipse-Flyer.htm

Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss.
             2017 April 21.

                             Like This Post? - Please Share!

            More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>> https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < spacewatchtower@planetarium.cc >.

gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/ >
& SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: < http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/ >
Electronic Mail - < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Astronomy Links: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#astrolinks >
Science Links: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#sciencelinks >
SpaceWatchtower Twitter News Feed: < https://twitter.com/spacewatchtower >
SpaceWatchtower Blog: < http://spacewatchtower.blogspot.com/ >
LibraryWatchtower Blog: < http://librarywatchtower.blogspot.com >
TransportWatchtower Blog: < http://transportwatchtower.blogspot.com  >
South Hills Backyard Astronomers Blog: < http://shbastronomers.blogspot.com/ >
Barnestormin Blog: Writing, Essays, Pgh. News, etc.: < http://www.barnestormin.blogspot.com/ >
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh:
  < http://www.planetarium.cc >
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago:
  < http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com >
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear:
  < http://johnbrashear.tripod.com >
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries:
  < http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc >
* Civil War Museum of Andrew Carnegie Free Library:
  < http://garespypost.tripod.com >
Duquesne Incline cable-car railway, Pittsburgh:
  < http://inclinedplane.tripod.com >
* Public Transit:
  < http://andrewcarnegie2.tripod.com/transit >