Tuesday, March 6, 2018

Photo: Rare Phenomenon - Toronto Skyline Seen Across Lake Ontario in NY State!

http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/osc/Toronto-OlcottNY20170819_201213.jpg
Photograph of the skyline of the City of Toronto taken from across Lake Ontario in the small hamlet of Olcott, New York, one minute after sunset on 2017 August 19 (a distance of 42 miles / 68 kilometers). Internet links to two additional photographs near end of this blog-post.
© Copyright 2018 SpaceWatchtower; Images can be reproduced only with publication of the following credit notice:
 Image Source: SpaceWatchtower Blog;
Photographer: Pittsburgh-Area Free-Lance Photographer Lynne S. Walsh

By Glenn A. Walsh
Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

At 2.5 million light-years from Earth, the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) is normally considered the furthest object that can be seen with the naked-eye (1-power magnification). But, what is the furthest object on Earth's surface-level that can be seen with the naked-eye? Last year, a free-lance photographer took a photograph of the Toronto skyline from New York State, across the width of Lake Ontario – a distance of 42 miles / 68 kilometers!

While vacationing in Western New York State, Pittsburgh-area free-lance photographer Lynne S. Walsh (the author's sister) took the photograph displayed at the beginning of this blog-post showing the Toronto skyline in silhouette, with light from one minute after sunset behind the skyline. The structure seen furthest on the left of this photograph is the iconic CN Tower, the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, rising to a height of 1,815.3 feet / 553.3 meters.

This photograph was taken from the Lakeview Village Shoppes on Ontario Street, in the small hamlet of Olcott, New York, on Saturday Evening, 2017 August 19 at 8:12:13 p.m. Eastern Daylight Saving Time (EDT) / August 20 at 0:12:13 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). According to the U.S. Naval Observatory, sunset that evening in Olcott, Niagara County, New York occurred at 8:11 p.m. EDT / August 20, 0:11 UTC. Since Ms. Walsh was on vacation, she did not use a special camera. This photograph was taken using her LG-brand Smart-Phone!

James McKee, a Pittsburgh-area resident who grew-up in this area of Western New York State, tells the author that, over the years, several people have seen the Toronto skyline across Lake Ontario—sometimes even in the daytime on a very clear day!

Due to the curvature of the Earth, normally, people cannot see across any of the Great Lakes. In fact, for a normal person approximately six-feet in height, they could not see much past the horizon, about 2.9 miles away (2.65 miles away for people around five-feet in height). So, how is it that the skyline of Toronto, 42 miles / 68 kilometers away, can be seen across Lake Ontario?

The author put this question to Francis G. Graham, Professor Emeritus of Physics at Kent State University. Professor Graham, who earlier in his career was a Planetarium and Observatory Lecturer at Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science, provided the following explanation:

Your question was asked of me in regards to Cleveland.

From the Key Bank top floor in Cleveland, one should not be able to see the shore of Canada across Lake Erie.  The straight-line distance to the horizon places the horizon in the middle of Lake Erie. 
But due to refraction from warm air, Canada is occasionally glimpsed from the Key Bank building.  I have not witnessed it, but it is reliably told.

The straight-line distance to the horizon is given by d in the Pythagorean Theorem,

d =  square root of  [  (R + h ) ^2  -  (R)^2 ]  

where h is the height of the structure and R is the radius of the Earth (which varies slightly).  

Refraction can extend this.  So it would be possible to see Toronto on some days across  (Lake) Ontario. 

Key (Bank) Tower, referred to by Professor Graham, is the tallest building in the state of Ohio, located on Public Square in the center of Downtown Cleveland. With 57 floors, the building rises 947 feet / 289 meters to the top of the spire (the top floor is at a height of 888 feet / 271 meters).

It should also be noted that while the Andromeda Galaxy is normally considered the furthest object that can be seen with the naked-eye, there are claims that two further galaxies may also be visible to the naked-eye, from time-to-time: Triangulum Spiral (M33) is the third largest member of the Local Group at a distance of 2.78 million light-years and Bode's Galaxy (M81) at a distance of 12 million light-years.

Today (2018 March 6) is the 184th anniversary of the incorporation of Toronto as a city (on 1834 March 6).

Special Thanks: Pittsburgh-Area Free-Lance Photographer Lynne S. Walsh, James McKee, and Francis G. Graham, Professor Emeritus of Physics, Kent State University.

Internet links to two additional photographs of the Toronto skyline from across Lake Ontario in Olcott, New York ---

2017 August 19, 7:40:26 p.m. EST / 23:40:26 UTC:
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/osc/Toronto-Olcott20170819_194026.jpg

2017 August 19, 7:40:55 p.m. EST / 23:40:55 UTC:
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/osc/Toronto-Olcott20170819_194055.jpg

These two photographs are
© Copyright 2018 SpaceWatchtower; Images can be reproduced only with publication of the following credit notice:
 Image Source: SpaceWatchtower Blog;
Photographer: Pittsburgh-Area Free-Lance Photographer Lynne S. Walsh

Internet link to an additional photograph of the Toronto skyline from across Lake Ontario in Olcott, New York, taken about 20 minutes prior to sunset using the camera on an I-Phone 8 smart-phone ---

2018 June 10:
Link >>> http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/osc/Toronto-Olcott20180610-IMG_3673.jpg

Internet Links to Additional Information ---

Lake Ontario: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Ontario

Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toronto

Olcott, Niagara County, New York: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olcott,_New_York

Lake Erie: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Erie

Key (Bank) Tower, Cleveland: Link >>> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Key_Tower

Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss.
             2018 March 6.

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gaw

Glenn A. Walsh, Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/fotz/ >
& SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: < http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/weblog/spacewatchtower/gaw/ >
Electronic Mail - < gawalsh@planetarium.cc >
Astronomy Links: < http://buhlplanetarium.tripod.com/#astrolinks >
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South Hills Backyard Astronomers Blog: < http://shbastronomers.blogspot.com/ >
Barnestormin Blog: Writing, Essays, Pgh. News, etc.: < http://www.barnestormin.blogspot.com/ >
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh:
  < http://www.planetarium.cc >
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago:
  < http://adlerplanetarium.tripod.com >
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear:
  < http://johnbrashear.tripod.com >
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries:
  < http://www.andrewcarnegie.cc >
* Civil War Museum of Andrew Carnegie Free Library:
  < http://garespypost.tripod.com >
Duquesne Incline cable-car railway, Pittsburgh:
  < http://inclinedplane.tripod.com >
* Public Transit:
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  25. Hello everyone, I am Ancor anais, a single mother from Denver, I would like to share this great testimony on how I received my loan from the loan company Julian Hoffman when we were expelled from our home when I could not pay my bills anymore, after having been stolen by several online companies and denied a loan by my bank and other other credit unions I visited. My children were taken care of by the host, I was alone on the street. Until one day, I ignored an old colleague who introduced me to the loan company Julian Hoffman. At first I told her that I am not ready to take the risk of borrowing another loan online, but she assured me that I received my loan for them. On a second thought, I took due to my homework, I took a test and requested the loan, luckily for me, I received a loan of $50,000.00 from (Julianhoffman.finance55@gmail.com). I am happy to take the risk and apply for the loan. My children were returned to me and now I own a home and a business of mine. All gratitude is to the lending company Julian Hoffman for giving meaning to my life when I lost all hope.

    ReplyDelete
  26. Hello everyone, my name is Haridian Nuria ??Criss, and i am from San Diego; I am 45 years old ... I am married with three children, I want to inform you about the kindness of the Lord, I was hit in a financial situation, and I needed to pay my bills, I tried to seek loans from several private credit companies and corporate, but never with success, and most banks have lowered my credit. But finally, I want to thank God Almighty for taking me to a real lender and Legit named Mrs. Julian Hoffman, CEO of Julian hoffman finance, after having been swindled the sum of $100,000.00 by false creditors, I was hopeless and did not know whom To trust as she came and put a big smile on my face When lending me the sum of $450,000.00 in my biggest surprise, So dear, if you must contact any company with reference to securing a loan with a low interest rate of 2% and better Repayment plans and timeline, contact (Julianhoffman.finance55@gmail.com) And also if you were a victim of Scam, do not worry anymore, because I brought good news and the only lender you can trust, just contact her now via (Julianhoffman.finance55@gmail.com) for more information on how to get your loan. She does not know I'm doing this. I pray that God will bless you abundantly by putting a smile on my face and in my family.

    ReplyDelete
  27. A MUST READ :Me and my family has been in poverty for about five years now and my husband have left us six years ago and he was very rich he was with another woman who do not even have a child for him and abandon me with my 4 children so one day my son said that his friend saw a post of one woman saying that he can help someone get a loan then my son use his friend's phone to email the woman then he cheated with her so the woman said that he will help us I said he was joking so he told us what to do then we did it 4 days later i got a loanand me and my family were living very fine then three days ago my husband came home on his knees he was pleading but now we are now back together again so am telling you now if you need a loan etc email her now on julianhoffman.finance55@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  28. Good day I am Mr Slim Evans by name and i live in united kingdom i will like to talk about the goodness of God in my life after so many months of trying to get a loan on the internet and was been scammed so i became desperate in getting a loan from a legit lender online then i saw a comment from a friend called Walter Chad and he talked about this legit loan company where he got his loan fast and easy without any stress so he introduced me to a lady called Mrs Julian Hoffman who controls a firm called Julian Hoffman Loan Firm, So i applied for a loan sum of($300,000.00usd) with low interest rate of 2% so the loan was approved and deposited into my bank account that was how i was able to get my loan to keep my broken business running and also to pay off my bills so i am advising everyone of you who is interested in getting a loan fast and easy to kindly contact the loan company via email:(julianhoffman.finance55@gmail.com) to get any kind of loan you need today,thanks as you read the greatest testimony of my life.

    ReplyDelete
  29. How My Credit Score Was Restored My name is Andrew McCary from West Sacramento, CA, I want to express my heartfelt gratitude to Julian Hoffman LOAN & JEWELRY for helping me restore my credit score and my dying business by granting me a mortgage of $50,000 after being turned down by my bank and other financial agencies I visited. I recommend everyone out there in need of financial assistance in other not to fall into the wrong hands while searching of a liable mortgage to contact this company via email: julianhoffman.finance55@gmail.com

    Best Regards.

    ReplyDelete
  30. We currently have funds for Financing Real Estate, Project Funding, Bridge Loans, Construction Financing, and Ordinary Loans for Company Export/Import financing projects of large volume.

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    Our funding interest rate is 3% with five months grace period, and the client needs to ensure his/her project with an insurance company of the total loan sum to guarantee the loan as collateral.

    E-Mail us: standardonlineinvestment@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  31. DO YOU THINK OF GETTING A LOAN??
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    ReplyDelete


  32. Greetings to you,
    All types of loans are borrowed at an interest rate of 3% been, and it
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    Name:_______________
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    Best regards.
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    ReplyDelete
  33. DO YOU THINK OF GETTING A LOAN??
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    DO YOU NEED A LOAN? Are Financially down, Cry no more, Financial problem is nothing to cry about, it something we will have to fight against in one Love, Understanding, Trust and Unity. So our faith as Legitimate Financial Consultants is putting an end to the financial hardship. We are investors providing financial services and we specialize in both start up projects,Home Finance and existing businesses needing funding or Loan for expansion. We are committed to helping businesses develop and succeed.Do you have a low credit score and you are finding it hard to obtain capital loan from local banks and other financial institutes? Do you need an urgent loan to buy a house? If Yes worry no more for we are out here to help the less financial privileges get the loan they need to get back on their feet no matter your credit score, you can say goodbye to all your financial crisis and difficulties. We offer loans ranging from ($5,000.00.USD To $500,000,000.00.USD) At a low and affordable interest rate of 2%, without collateral and without credit check. Bradley Louis Loans holds all of the information about how to obtain money quickly and painlessly (dr.bradleylouisloans@gmail.com) Text/Call (917) 383-2689

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    Are you looking for genuine loan? contacting the right company for legitimate loan lender have always been a huge problem to clients who have financial problem and in need of solution to it at an affordable interest rate? Are you in any financial mess or do you need funds to start up your own home project and real estate development? Do you need a loan to start a nice small or large scale and medium business?
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    Look forward to your response,

    Dr. Bradley Louis
    Text/Call (917) 383-2689

    ReplyDelete



  34. INSTEAD OF GETTING A LOAN,, I GOT SOMETHING NEW
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    ReplyDelete
  35. Blank ATM cards
    Did you know that you can withdraw money from any ATM !!!
    We have specially programmed ATM cards that can be used to withdraw money from ATMs or theft, stores and points of sale. We sell these cards to all of our interested customers and buyers worldwide. Cards have a daily withdrawal limit of $ 5,000 at ATMs and a spending limit of up to $ 100,000 at stores.
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    ReplyDelete
  36. My name is Sara Johnson, I live in california U.S.A and i am a happy woman today? I told my self that any Loan lender that could change my Life and that of my family after been scammed severally by these online loan lenders, i will refer any person that is looking for loan to Them. he gave happiness to me and my family, although at first i found it hard to trust him because of my experiences with past loan lenders, i was in need of a loan of $300,000.00 to start my life all over as a single parents with 2 kids, I met this honest and GOD fearing loan lender online Dr. Dave Logan that helped me with a loan of $300,000.00 U.S. Dollars, he is indeed a GOD fearing man, working with a reputable loan company. If you are in need of loan and you are 100% sure to pay back the loan please contact him on (daveloganloanfirm@gmail.com and Call/Text: +1(501)800-0690 ) .. and inform them Sara Johnson directed you.. Thanks. Blessed Be.

    ReplyDelete
  37. DO YOU THINK OF GETTING A LOAN??
    APPLY TODAY FOR AFFORDABLE 100% LEGITIMATE HOME/REAL ESTATE/PERSONAL/BUSINESS LOANS Email for immediate response: (dr.bradleylouisloans@gmail.com) Text/Call (917) 383-2689


    DO YOU NEED A LOAN? Are Financially down, Cry no more, Financial problem is nothing to cry about, it is something we will have to fight against in one Love, Understanding, Trust and Unity. So our faith as Legitimate Financial Consultants is putting an end to the financial hardship. We are investors providing financial services and we specialize in both start up projects,Home Finance and existing businesses needing funding or Loan for expansion. We are committed to helping businesses develop and succeed.Do you have a low credit score and you are finding it hard to obtain capital loan from local banks and other financial institutes? Do you need an urgent loan to buy a house? If Yes worry no more because we are out here to help the less financially privileged get the loan they need to get back on their feet no matter your credit score, you can say goodbye to all your financial crisis and difficulties. We offer loans ranging from ($5,000.00.USD To $500,000,000.00.USD) At a low and affordable interest rate of 2%, without collateral and without credit check. Bradley Louis Loans holds all of the information about how to obtain money quickly and painlessly (dr.bradleylouisloans@gmail.com) Text/Call (917) 383-2689

    Need emergency funds? Apply now and get your cash approval. we offer the following financial services:
    *Personal loans,
    *Debt consolidation loans,
    *Venture capital,
    *Business loans,
    *Education loans,
    *Home loans
    *Car Loans
    *Hotel Loans
    And many more.

    Are you looking for a genuine loan? contacting the right company for a legitimate loan lender has always been a huge problem to clients who have financial problems and in need of a solution to it at an affordable interest rate? Are you in any financial mess or do you need funds to start up your own home project and real estate development? Do you need a loan to start a nice small or large scale and medium business?
    contact us today (dr.bradleylouisloans@gmail.com) Text/Call (917) 383-2689
    Look forward to your response,

    Dr. Bradley Louis
    Text/Call (917) 383-2689

    ReplyDelete
  38. HAVE YOU BEEN IN SEARCH FOR GENUINE HACKER'S ONLINE?. HAVE YOU LOST YOUR MONEY TO BINARY SCAMMERS OR ANY ONLINE SCAM WHATSOEVER?. WELL, YOU HAVE FOUND REDEMPTION IN ASORE CORP.
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    ReplyDelete
  39. Do You Need A Loan To Consolidate Your Debt At 1.0%? SuiteCapitals@gmail.com ( SuiteCapitals@post.com ) Or A Personal Loans * Business Loans etc. Interested Parties Should Contact Us For More Information Through Via Email: SuiteCapitals@gmail.com ( SuiteCapitals@post.com )

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    ReplyDelete

  40. I want to share my testimony on how i got the blank ATM card. I was so wrecked that my company fired me simply because i did not obliged to their terms, so they hacked into my system and phone and makes it so difficult to get any other job, i did all i could but things kept getting worse by the day that i couldn’t afford my 3 kids fees and pay my bills. I owe so many people trying to borrow money to survive because my old company couldn’t allow me get another job and they did all they could to destroy my life just for declining to be among their evil deeds. haven’t given up i kept searching for job online when i came across the testimony of a lady called Judith regarding how she got the blank ATM card. Due to my present state, i had to get in touch with Hacker called OSCAR WHITE of oscarwhitehackersworld@gmail.com and he told me the procedures and along with the terms which i agreed to abide and i was told that the Blank card will be deliver to me without any further delay and i hold on to his words and to my greatest surprise, i received an ATM card worth $4.5 million USD , All Thanks to OSCAR WHITE , if you are facing any financial problem contact him asap email address is oscarwhitehackersworld@gmail.com or whats-app +1(323)-362-2310

    ReplyDelete

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    ReplyDelete