Thursday, June 6, 2019

Requirement for World War II D-Day: Full Moon !

graphic showing orbit of moon around Earth, illustrating spring and neap tides
Spring Tides, the greatest tides of a lunar month, occur when the gravity of the Moon and the Sun are in direct alignment with the Earth, which occurs during Full Moon and New Moon phases of the Earth's Moon. Neap Tides, when the Sun's gravity partially cancels-out the gravitational pull of the Moon resulting in lower tides, occur during the Moon's First and Last Quarter phases. Spring Tides were a prerequisite for a successful D-Day invasion on 1944 June 6.
(Graphic Source: National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce)

By Glenn A. Walsh
Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

On Tuesday Morning, 1944 June 6, 75 years-ago today on a date known as “D-Day”, Allied Forces landed on the coast of Normandy in France, to begin the liberation of German-occupied France in Operation Overlord during World War II. The date of D-Day was no accident. The phase of the Moon was critical if D-Day was going to be a success!

Operation Overlord was actually the code-name for the entire Battle of Normandy. The Normandy Landings, commonly known as D-Day, was officially known as Operation Neptune, as it was to be the largest sea-borne invasion in history. In Roman mythology, Neptune was the god of the sea. Of course, Neptune also became the name of the eighth planet from the Sun, first observed by Johann Galle on 1846 September 23, from calculations developed by Urbain Le Verrier.

The D-Day invasion force consisted of 5,000 ships and landing craft carrying 130,000 soldiers across the English Channel from England to the Normandy beaches. More than a thousand air transports carried another 24,000 paratroopers and glider men, who landed in zones behind enemy lines. Just before sunrise, the Allied airplanes and ships started a constant bombardment on German strongholds along the coast. The nations participating in the D-Day invasion were the United States, Canada, Great Britain, Australia, Czechoslovakia, France, Norway, and Poland. 

Military planners set certain conditions for the Normandy invasion. First, it had to be a complete surprise to the Germans defending the French coast. Even though the Germans were expecting some type of invasion some day, they did not when or where it would occur.

In fact, U.S. General George S. Patton, who was well-respected by the German High Command, prepared a phantom army in eastern England for a supposed alternate invasion of France at Pas de Calais in Operation Fortitude. Through false intelligence leaks to German intelligence and deceptive military radio traffic (the 1944 version of “fake news”), as well as fictitious props and decoys to be observed by German air reconnaissance, German military planners were successfully convinced that the Allied invasion would occur at the narrowest section of the English Channel.

Also necessary for a successful invasion would be early morning time-of-day, reasonable weather and sea conditions, the lowest and then highest tides possible, and a Moon phase of Full Moon.

There are two reasons why the phase of the Moon was so important.

  1. Spring Tides - Although D-Day occurred during the season of Spring, Spring Tides have nothing to do with the Spring season. Each day, the gravity of the Moon causes high and low tides along ocean coast-lines. Twice a month, at the Full Moon and New Moon phases of Earth's Moon, the Earth, Moon, and Sun are in a straight alignment known as a Syzygy. At this time, the gravity of the Sun reinforces the gravity of the Moon to provide the highest and lowest tides of the month; these are known as Spring Tides.
    Special Note: Summer in June of 1944 would not begin until Wednesday, 1944 June 21 at 13:02:45 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT - equivalent to today's Coordinated Universal Time) / 9:02:45 a.m. U.S. Eastern War Time (equivalent to today's Eastern Daylight Saving Time) / 3:02:45 p.m. British Double-Summer Time. During World War II, Great Britain advanced clocks two hours ahead of normal time (Greenwich Mean Time) during the warm-weather months, while America advanced clocks one hour ahead of Standard Time, called “War Time,” for the duration of the war. Allied Invasion Forces utilized British Double-Summer Time.
  2. Full Moon - A Full Moon can provide illumination at night (after dusk) and early morning (before dawn), for areas where there is no artificial illumination, for aircraft pilots, glider pilots, and paratroopers.

The best tides were extremely important for the landing of troops on the Normandy beaches to be successful. Military planners needed the lowest tides possible at the beginning of the invasion near sunrise, while the highest tides possible during the actual ship landings later in the morning. During only a three-day period twice a month, when Spring Tides were available (during Full Moon and New Moon phases), could the needs of these military plans be satisfied.

Originally, U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Commander of the Expeditionary Forces in Europe, had planned to implement D-Day in May, but the invasion force was not ready. He decided that the invasion force would be ready by June 5, when Spring Tides and the Full Moon would be advantageous (even though Full Moon did not actually occur until June 6). However on June 4, British military weather forecasters advised him that high winds and heavy seas made a June 5 landing impossible. So, General Eisenhower reluctantly agreed to a 24-hour delay.

Had bad weather also prevented a June 6 landing in Normandy, the D-Day landings may have been postponed until the June 18 to 20 period of time (probably June 19) during the New Moon phase when Spring Tides would also be available. The New Moon phase occurred on Tuesday, 1944 June 20 at 17:00 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) / 1:00 p.m. U.S. Eastern War Time / 7:00 p.m. British Double-Summer Time.

However, an invasion during the New Moon phase did have the major disadvantage of no illumination from the Moon during the early morning, pre-sunrise paratrooper and glider landings behind enemy lines. So, General Eisenhower really did want to execute D-Day on June 6, which would also maximize the number of fighting days on the European Continent during the warm-weather months.

A very low tide at the very beginning of the invasion would expose mined obstacles, such as stakes, ramps, tetrahedrons, hedgehogs, and Belgian Gates, all connected with barbed wire, which the Nazis had placed in the ocean near shore specifically to prevent invasion ships from landing. A very low tide would allow engineers in demolition parties to destroy these obstacles before the landing ships arrived.

Military planners also planned on having these demolitions executed during a rising tide. This was necessary since they needed the landing craft to land on the beach as soon as the obstacles were gone. And, the landing craft needed a high tide to land on the beach.

However, the engineers only had about a half-hour, between initial landings of the demolition crews (on June 6 at 4:30 Greenwich Mean Time / 12:30 a.m. U.S. Eastern War Time / 6:30 a.m. British Double-Summer Time) and the rising water level of the rising tide, to perform their demolitions. In the case of Omaha Beach, code name for one of two beaches where American troops landed, it was not enough time. The military planners had planned on the demolition crews providing 16 gaps in the Nazi's wall of obstacles; the engineers only had time to create 5 such gaps. This is why Omaha Beach is considered the bloodiest landing of the five beaches where troops landed.

American troops also landed at Utah Beach, while Canadian troops landed at Juno Beach. British troops landed at Gold and Sword Beaches.

A key part of the plan was to land troops behind enemy lines long before sunrise on D-Day, to capture or destroy rail and road bridges, secure control of causeways, and secure control of key roads and intersections. This was accomplished by U.S. and British Airborne Divisions through landings by paratroopers and glider men. Paratroopers and silent gliders started landing in Normandy on June 5 around 23:30 Greenwich Mean Time / 7:30 p.m. U.S. Eastern War Time / June 6, 1:30 a.m. British Double-Summer Time, following pathfinder paratroopers who had jumped about an hour earlier.

So, military planners considered it very important to have a bright Full Moon available to guide the Airborne Divisions to the drop-sites, and to guide the paratroopers and glider men to their landing sites. The time of the phase of Full Moon on D-Day (June 6) occurred at 18:58 Greenwich Mean Time / 2:58 p.m. U.S. Eastern War Time / 8:58 p.m. British Double-Summer Time.

Until recently, there was a mistaken belief that, to ensure darkness and complete surprise to Nazi troops as aircraft approached Normandy, military planners had planned on a late-rising Moon. In other words, the Moon would not rise, and create the needed night-time illumination, until after the aircraft had reached Normandy. This mistaken belief was promoted by a magazine article published in the Saturday Evening Post on 1946 June 8 by General Eisenhower's chief-of-staff during the war, General Walter Bedell Smith. In the article, General Smith wrote, “For the airborne landings … we needed a late-rising full Moon, so the pilots could approach their objectives in darkness, but have moonlight to pick out the drop zones.”

Early this month, in a Sky and Telescope Magazine on-line article, the record is corrected by Texas State University Professor Donald Olson. Citing astronomical calculations, Professor Olson found that the Moon actually rose about an hour and a-half before sunset on June 5 and remained in the sky the rest of the evening and the early morning of June 6 until around sunrise. Over Normandy, Moon-rise occurred on June 5 at 18:30 Greenwich Mean Time / 8:30 p.m. British Double-Summer Time, when the Moon was 99 per-cent illuminated by the Sun; sunset was June 5 at 20:01 Greenwich Mean Time / 10:01 p.m. British Double-Summer Time.

Local lunar transit, when the Moon reaches the highest point in the sky on a particular day, occurred over Normandy on June 5 at 23:19 Greenwich Mean Time / June 6 at 1:19 a.m. British Double-Summer Time. This was equivalent to June 5, 7:19 p.m. U.S. Eastern War Time, even though the Moon would not rise in America until later in the evening (Moon-rise in Pittsburgh was June 5, 7:40 p.m. U.S. Eastern War Time).

Actually, this is typical behavior of a Full Moon. Every month, on or near the day of Full Moon, the Moon rises around the time of sunset, stays visible in the sky providing the brightest Moon-light of the month (weather-permitting) all-night-long, and sets around the time of sunrise.

The success of D-Day was truly a team effort, and science and technology played a critical role in the Allied victory in Normandy. Astronomers, meteorologists, geologists, geographers, engineers, military planners, radio operators, aircraft pilots and crews, glider pilots, paratroopers, and combat field medics were an important part of the invasion, in addition to the thousands of soldiers, sailors, and Marines who landed on the beaches that historic day.

Internet Links to Additional Information ---

More detailed information on Astronomy, Tides, and the D-Day Landings from
Sky and Telescope Magazine:
Link >>>

Link 1 >>>
Link 2 >>>

Full Moon: Link >>>

Spring Tides: Link >>>

Syzgy: Link >>>

Related Blog Posts ---

"Astronomy & World War II." Sun., 2014 Sept. 7.

Link >>>


"WWII Medals Return to Earth in Time for Veterans' Day." Tue., 2014 Nov. 11.

Link >>>


Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss.
              Thursday, 2019 June 6.

                             Like This Post?  Please Share!

           More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>>

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>>

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < >.


Glenn A. Walsh, Informal Science Educator & Communicator: >
Electronic Mail: < >
Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: < >
SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: < >
Formerly Astronomical Observatory Coordinator & Planetarium Lecturer, original Buhl Planetarium & Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), Pittsburgh's science & technology museum from 1939 to 1991.
Formerly Trustee, Andrew Carnegie Free Library and Music Hall, Pittsburgh suburb of Carnegie, Pennsylvania.
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh:
  < >
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago:
  < >
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear:
  < >
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries:
  < >


  1. Fascinating! Good work, Glenn

    Best wishes,




    2. Dr Oduku herpes treatment is one of the most effective home remedies for herpes which has the ability to kill the herpes virus permanently. I found out I had herpes 4 years ago. My first outbreak was definitely the worst thing I ever experienced. The bumps and blisters were swollen and red. I had a doctor give me Valtrex but I take the generic. I had to take the Valtrex 1 gram a day for about a week and I had another doctor prescribe me Acyclovir but that gave me the worst headaches ever, so I stopped taking it.after 2 year all that prove abortive the herpes was still there,
      Since I was first diagnosed I have about 2 outbreaks a month. I have been able to cope with this by having supportive family and friends who look out for me,though it wasnt easy for me, one day i read a post by someone testifying about Dr Oduku that she was cured totally using his herbal product, i decided to gave it a try, I contacted him as instructed in the testimony. i made request for the herbal medicine, he actually did send it to me and gave me the instruction on how i will use it,
      The good news is this, i went to the hospital after the medication for test as instructed by Dr Oduku, i was tested negative, i was suprised finding out that am now herpes virus negative against my former result which was positive, Am happy to let the whole world know that today am free from this herpes disease,
      no more outbreak, no more cold sores, excruciating pains, i will advice anyone reading this message and needed a cure for herpes as well should please contact this Great Dr Oduku on or WhatsApp +2348124765093

      Visit his website:

      Dr Oduku is the best herbal doctor.

      Here is my private e-mail you can also get in touch with me.

  2. Thank you Glenn for sharing, and may we never forget these true Heroes...!

  3. A terrific article! So much heroism by so many. Truly, the Greatest Generation. Thanks for this post.

  4. Replies
    1. This is real take it serious, who will believe that a herb can cure HERPES DISEASE in my body, i never believe that this will work i have spend alot when getting drugs from the hospital to keep me healthy, what i waswaiting for is death because i was broke, one day i hard about this greatman who is well know of HIV,cancer and herpes cure, i decided to email him,unknowingly to me that this will be the end of the HERPES DISEASE, heprepare the herb for me, and give me instruction on how to take it, at theend of the week which was seven days,he told me to go to the hospital for acheck up, and i went surprisingly after it the doctor confirm me cure fromHERPES disease I thought it was a joke, i went to other hospital the doctorthere also confirm me cure from HERPES disease then i took my friend whowas also HERPES patient to the Doctor after the taking of the herbs she wasalso confirm cure from HERPES disease .please I want every one with thisvirus to be free, that is why am dropping his email address,( or his whatsap contact +2348124765093)you can visit his website his blogs page want you to email him he is a great man. thank you for saving my life, and I promise Iwill always testify for your good work. you can also reach me

  5. Tease me until I’m begging for it Hey, i am looking for an online sexual partner ;) Click on my boobs if you are interested (. )( .)

  6. A LITTLE ACT OF KINDNESS CAN MAKE YOU REMEMBERED FOR A LONG TIME. GOD BLESS THE GREAT MIND BEHIND CREATING THIS READING PLATFORM. My problem with herpes type 2 has caused me many traumas, especially in my sexual life. I was so afraid of infecting my Boyfriend, I suffered the embarrassment of visiting dermatologists queries hundreds of times. Unfortunately, they did not find a definitive solution to my problem.The solution came from the least expected place By reading in a forum on the subject, mentioned a method for eliminating herpes simplex virus 2. Many people had tried, with excellent and quick results.I had nothing to lose so I decided to use this method to eliminate my herpes 2. spent 18 days using this method and my herpes type 2 completely disappeared. I recommend this method to all those infected with herpes virus, who want to eliminate the herpes from their body forever. Contact Doctor Razor via his Email : , I recommend his herbal herpes healing method. you can visit his website :, Whatsapp or Call Doctor Razor Via +2349065420442

  7. It's a pleasure for me to write this testimony about this wonderful thing that happened to me last week on how i got my peripheral artery disease (PAD) cured, i have been reading so-many post of some people who were cured of peripheral artery disease (PAD), but i never believed them, I was hurt and depressed so I was too curious and wanted to try dr emu when i contact him, he assured me 100% that he will heal me, i pleaded with him to help me out, it's a great success that he healed just as he promised, he told me that in three days time that i should go and check on my peripheral artery disease (PAD) status, I was floored that when i went to the hospital to check of my status that i was peripheral artery disease (PAD) negative, i never thought possible that dr emu can do miracles, i never really believed in magic but I played along with a little hope and faith and after everything but dr emu changed my life and made me a true believer you can contact him or whatsapp Number: +2347012841542 website: he said that he is also specialize on the following diseases: HERPES, HIV, ALS, HPV, DIABETES, HEPATITIS B, CANCER, SICKLE CELL, VIRGINAL DRYNESS, And Bring Back Your Ex back.

  8. Its a miracle that I am alive today. I encounter HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS (HSV1/2) for good four (4) years, before I meet the great Dr.Edidia I am Clara Kat from California, united state of America and I was affected with herpes virus. Herpes is a viral infection cause by the Herpes simplex virus, marked by painful, watery blister in the skin or mucous membrane or on the genitals. This was what I suffered for good four years. I have visited CVS Pharmacy in Fresno for treatmen/./../t but no improvement. I meet Dr. Edidia online while I was searching for herpes cure I read a testimony about his work. I give a try that now becomes a testimony in my life am now fully cured. kindly contacted  it really works. His herbal medicine is very active 
    and effective, and other 
    can of cure for HERPES, DIABETES, CANCER, HEPATITIS, HPV,HIV,COPD,KIDNEY FAILURE,PCOS and other diseases..... You can 
    contact doctor edidia on email: and 
    you can call/whatsapp him with +2349074505296 for your own cure too..    

    visit his website
    am clara kat here is my private email


  9. I am so Happy to be writing this article in here, i am here to explore blogs forum about the wonderful and most safe cure for HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS.I was positive to the Virus called HERPES and i lost hope completely because i was rejected even by my closet friends. i searched online to know and inquire about cure for HERPES and i saw testimony about DR Ebhota online on how he cured so many persons from Herpes Disease so i decided to contact the great herbalist because i know that nature has the power to heal everything. i contacted him to know how he can help me and he told me never to worry that he will help me with the natural herbs from God! after 2 days of contacting him, he told me that the cure has been ready and he sent it to me via FEDEX or DHL and it got to me after 4 days! i used the medicine as he instructed me (MORNING and EVENING) and i was cured! its really like a dream but i'm so happy! that's the reason i decided to also add more comment of Him so that more people can be saved just like me! and if you need his help,contact his Email: ( You can contact him on WhatsApp +2348089535482 He also have the herb to cure difference cure for any sickness (1) HERPES,
    (2) DIABETES,
    (3) HIV&AIDS,
    (5) HEPATITIS B,
    (6) IMPOTENCE,
    (8) DIARRHEA
    (9) ASTHMA..

  10. Good day to all viewer online am so happy sharing this great testimony on how i was checking for solution in the internet then miraculously i came Across Dr.Aire the powerful herbalist that Cure Numerous individuals Herpes Simplex Virus,so I contacted him base on the testimonies I?m seeing about him on the internet, I was cured too by him, kindly contact him actoday through his email he can help you email ; OR WHATSAPP +2347036740271

  11. I Want To Appreciate Dr. momoh for his great deeds, I Was Diagnosed With Herpes Virus Last 2018, And i Was Looking For Solution To Be Cured Luckily I Saw Testimonies On How Dr. momoh Cure Herpes Virus I Decided To Contact Dr. momoh I Contacted Him He Prepared A Herbal Medicine Portion And Sent It To Me,I Started The Herbal Medicine For My Health.He Gave Me Step By Step Instructions On How To Apply It, When I Applied It As Instructed, I Was Cured Of This Deadly Herpes Within 2 weeks, I Am Now Herpes Negative.My Brother And Sister I Know That There Are So Many People That Have The Same Herpes Virus Please contact Dr momoh To Help You Too, And Help Me To Thank Dr. momoh For Curing Me, I’m Cured By Dr. momoh Herbal Medicine, His Contact Email:( website on: Or Cell Whatsapp Number +234 708 372 4098 thank you so much DR.momoh. He can also cure other diseases/infections

  12. I had HIV I was told there was no cure except medication that can control it, I totally lost hope, all I could think was losing my life because I was so depressed and confused about the whole situation , few weeks ago I read about Dr Ojie natural herbal medicine which was guaranteed, I ordered the medicine after using it for 2 weeks I went for test and I tested negative I am so excited to share my testimony thank you so much dr Ojie you can also contact dr Ojie via WhatsApp or call +2349015357322 Email Dr ojie also have medications for, Kidney failure ,Herpes 1/2, CANCER, ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease), Hepatitis A/B, chronic pancreatitis, Emphysema, COPD (Chronic , Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), asthma, Acute angle-closure Glaucoma, Diabetes, CHRONIC PANCREATITIS thanks everyone God bless.

  13. STOP WASTING YOUR TIME ON FAKE PEOPLE WHO CLAIM TO BE AN AGENT I WAS SCAMED 4TIMES NOT UNTIL I RECIEVE A MESSAGE ON MY WHATSAPP TO CONTACT MR HARRIS WHICH I DID NOW I AM A FULL MEMBER OF THE GREAT ILLUMINATI BROTHERHOOD BE WHAT YOU WHICH FOR IN LIFE BY JOINING THE GREAT ILLUMINATI BROTHERHOOD TODAY Further encouraging the rumours is the widespread use of supposed "Illuminati" imagery in music videos. Many Freemason and Illuminati symbols, like devil horns and the all-seeing eye, have simply become popular in mainstream culture. But it's also true that some musicians seem to enjoy deliberately playing with symbols connected to secret societies.if you are interested contact on email or whatsapp number +14092993890 GOOD LUCK.

  14. People actually believe there is no cure for herpes due to what our medical Doctor's do always say to us..but now i know that there is a cure for it Through herbal remedy' i and my boyfriend was once haven herpes type 1&2 i contacted DR.ODUDU for herbal treatment and he prepared us some herbs which we takes for some couples of days, and we take it as he says before i am to known' i and my boyfriend was perfectly cure for it and never experience the Outbreaks again. please friends if you have herpes virus and you really want to get rid of it permanently, Kindly contact this great DR.ODUDU for herbal treatment and you will get rid of it.. truly truly home remedies works perfectly. EMAIL cell phone contact +2348101571054 his whatsapp contact is +2348101571054


  15. I went with Dr Oyama when i was Herpes positive and i followed exactly as i was told by this man, after 3 to 5 days of communication i eventually received a package from the mailing service and that was the medicine sent by Dr Oyama.
    I started taking the medicine as directed by Dr Oyama and after 2 weeks I also started to see some changes on my skin, and after a month passed I noticed that the rashes on my skin are cleared, I was surprised and I thought to myself again LIKE! THIS REALLY WORKS OUT? when i noticed this changes i contacted this Great Dr and i told him about it, he told me to go to the hospital and do some check up if the virus is still there, i actually went to the hospital on Friday to do some test on my blood and after 3 days the result came out that i was completely free from HERPES, still many people will not believe this, but it did really works.Dr Oyama is a brave man and he is set to answer all human disease, such as Diabetes HPV Parkinson Autism Cancer and many more today i am living in good health as just with a test i conquered my pain and sorrow, Please you can contact Dr Oyama for any problem with the email below: you can go to his Page:

  16. Herbs are very good in eliminating viruses / diseases which I think have no cure, I was able to get rid of HSV1 & 2 and HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE after using the herbal medicine I ordered from dr kokobi. y'all shouldn't be carried away by what the medical doctor told you. Herbal remedies have the best solution. contact him via his Email or whatsapp +2349055346858 below he has the cure to any illness/diseases