Saturday, March 31, 2018

Centennial: U.S. Daylight Saving Time Commences

Robert Garland
In this 1935 July 8 photograph, the "Father of Daylight Saving" in America,
Robert Garland, is sworn-in as a member of Pittsburgh City Council. Robert
Garland is pictured on the right, being sworn-in by Pittsburgh Mayor William
McNair on the left; an unidentified man, perhaps the President of City Council,
is shown in the middle.
(Image Source: Historic Pittsburgh Internet web-site, Pittsburgh City Photographer
Collection, hosted by the University of Pittsburgh Library System)                                        

By Glenn A. Walsh
Reporting for SpaceWatchtower

Today (March 31) marks the centennial of the first day Daylight Saving Time was observed in the United States. In 1918, Daylight Saving Time began on the last Sunday of March, March 31 at 2:00 a.m. Standard Time and concluded on the last Sunday in October, October 27 at 2:00 a.m. Daylight Saving Time. Of course this year, 2018, Daylight Saving Time began on the second Sunday of March, March 11 and ends on the first Sunday in November, November 4.

Due to the need to save energy in order to increase production as the United States entered World War I, the U.S. Standard Time Act of 1918 included a provision for Daylight Saving Time (note that there is no letter “s” at the end of the word “Saving”) during the warmer-weather months of the year. This was the first time the United States had instituted Daylight Saving Time since something similar was first suggested by American Envoy to France, Benjamin Franklin (publisher of the old English proverb "Early to bed, and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise").

Changing daily habits to take advantage of more daylight during the Summer months was first proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1784, while he was a diplomat in Paris. In an anonymous letter that was published, he used satire to suggest that it would be better to use the sunlight of the morning rather than to waste candles in the evening. His essay, “An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost of Light,” written to the editor of The Journal of Paris, was actually penned partially in-jest; hence, nothing came of the idea. Although, it should be noted that he did not actually propose a plan similar to the Daylight Saving Time we know today.

A New Zealand entomologist, George Hudson, first proposed the type of Daylight Saving Time we know today. Although, in an 1895 paper presented before the Wellington Philosophical Society, he proposed a two-hour time shift during the Summer months. However, New Zealand did not establish Daylight Saving Time until 1927.

Independently, British builder and outdoors-man William Willett conceived Daylight Saving Time in 1905, an idea he published in 1907. British Liberal Party Member of Parliament (MP) Robert Pearce submitted legislation in the House of Commons regarding Mr. Willett's idea in 1908. Although a Select Committee was set-up to study the idea, and Mr. Willett continued lobbying in favor of the proposal, none of the proposed laws passed before Mr. Willett died in 1915.

From 1911 to 1912, Daylight Saving Time was introduced in the municipality of Orillia, Ontario, Canada, by the town's mayor, William Sword Frost.

The German and the Austria-Hungary empires were the first countries to establish Daylight Saving Time for the Summer (May through October), as a way to save coal during World War I, on 1916 April 30 at 11:00 p.m. Standard Time. The countries of Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Turkey, and Tasmania did the same, at the same time, as well as the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and Manitoba. Great Britain did like-wise three weeks later on 1916 May 21, followed by Russia, Australia, and Newfoundland (then a Dominion of the British Empire, separate from Canada) in 1917.

Robert Garland, a Pittsburgh industrialist (who ran a Pittsburgh factory, Garland Nuts and Rivets) and a member of the Pittsburgh City Council for 28 years (1911 to 1939), is considered the “Father of Daylight Saving” in America. He was also President of the Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce, as well chairing the U.S. Chamber of Commerce's national “Special Committee on Daylight Saving.” He fought hard for the establishment of Summer Daylight Saving Time.

U.S. President Woodrow Wilson signed-into law, on 1918 March 19, the Standard Time Act of 1918, also known as the Calder Act, which established official time zones in the United States, including a provision for Daylight Saving Time. Although time zones had been unofficially observed for a few decades.

The American and Canadian railroads had established five unofficial time zones for the North American continent on 1883 November 18, precisely at 12:00 Noon from a time signal issued by telegraph from Pittsburgh's Allegheny Observatory. This was possible after Allegheny Observatory, under the supervision of the Western University of Pennsylvania Astronomy Professor Samuel Pierpont Langley, started determining and disseminating precise time in 1869. The Allegheny Observatory's time service is considered the first regular and systematic system of time distribution to railroads and cities, as well as the origin of the modern Standard Time system.

America's first experiment with Daylight Saving Time did not last long. Farmers (whose farm animals, of course, paid no attention to Daylight Saving Time) and other agricultural interests were vehemently opposed to the new Summer time system.

With the end of World War I (the original rationale for Daylight Saving Time), and strong lobbying against “Summer time” or “fast time,” the U.S. Congress repealed the plan seven months later in 1919, over a veto by President Wilson. However, several cities including Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Boston, and New York City continued using Daylight Saving Time during the Summer months. Daylight Saving Time was resurrected as “War Time” during World War II (in effect 1942 February 9 through 1945 September 30), also to save energy during the War.

After the Second World War, some cities and states continued using Daylight Saving Time, but often the beginning and ending of Daylight Saving Time was not consistent from one state or town to another. In the early 1960s, a transportation industry Committee for Time Uniformity found that, over a 35-mile stretch of highway (West Virginia Route 2) between Moundsville, West Virginia and Steubenville, Ohio, seven time-zone changes had to be endured by each bus driver and bus passenger!

The Federal Uniform Time Act of 1966 (enacted 1966 April 13) solved this problem by prescribing the start and end times of Daylight Saving Time, for those states which chose to participate. The law established that Daylight Saving Time would begin each year at 2:00 a.m. Standard Time on the last Sunday in April through 2:00 a.m. Daylight Saving Time on the last Sunday in October. The law first took effect in 1967, except in the states of Arizona (not including some tribal nations in the state which did observe Daylight Saving Time) and Michigan, which chose not to participate.

In 1972, Congress amended the law to allow states, which include two or more time zones, to exempt one (or more) of the state's time zones from Daylight Saving Time. Previously, the state legislature could only exempt the entire state from Daylight Saving Time. From then on, most counties in the Eastern Time Zone section of the state of Indiana did not observe Daylight Saving Time, while most counties in the Central Time Zone did shift their clocks twice a year. However, beginning in April of 2006, all counties in Indiana now observe Daylight Saving Time.

To reduce energy consumption during the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973, year-round Daylight Saving Time was established by the U.S. Congress in the United States from 1974 January 6 to 1975 October 26. However, many mothers were quite upset that this meant that their children had to travel to school during the dark, early-morning hours in the Winter months. Thousands of these mothers (including the author's mother, Eleanor A. Walsh) wrote letters to their representatives in Congress complaining about this.

After receiving thousands of letters from angry mothers, in October of 1974 Congress amended the law to return to Standard Time from 1974 October 27 until 1975 February 23 when Daylight Saving Time resumed. And, when the trial period ended on 1975 October 26, year-round Daylight Saving Time ended, and the normal Summer Daylight Saving Time resumed.

In 1986, Daylight Saving Time was extended to include most of the month of April, by starting on the first Sunday in April beginning in 1987. The end-date remained the last Sunday in October.

Congressional passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 extended Daylight Saving Time again, starting in 2007. Now, Daylight Saving Time begins on the second Sunday of March and reverts to Standard Time on the first Sunday in November.

One of the major reasons to extend Daylight Saving Time an extra week in the Autumn, to the first Sunday in November, was to allow greater daylight in the evening on October 31, to improve safety for children trick-or-treating on Halloween. However, had they extended Daylight Saving Time two extra weeks in the Autumn, to the second Sunday in November, this would have allowed more daylight in the evening on General Election Day (statutorily set as "the Tuesday next after the first Monday in the month of November" or "the first Tuesday after November 1"), which could improve safety that evening, and potentially boost voter participation. Gee, I wonder why the politicians did not think of that ? !

Daylight Saving Time is now observed in all U.S. states except Arizona (as the Navajo Indian Reservation extends into Utah and New Mexico, Daylight Saving Time is observed; the Hopi Indian Reservation, completely within Arizona, does not observe Daylight Saving Time) and Hawaii. All U.S. insular territories with civilian government (American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands), which lie in the tropics (and hence, have more daylight year-round and less variation in daylight throughout the year) do not observe Daylight Saving Time. The District of Columbia does observe Daylight Saving Time.

In Canada, all provinces observe Daylight Saving Time except Saskatchewan (there are certain towns and / or limited areas in Saskatchewan which do observe Daylight Saving Time). In the provinces of British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec, and the territory of Nunavut, most of the jurisdiction observes Daylight Saving Time, except for certain towns and / or limited areas.

This blog-post is posted on 2018 March 31 at 3:00 a.m. Eastern Daylight Saving Time (EDT), exactly one hundred years from the commencement of Daylight Saving Time in the Eastern Time Zone (the first U.S. time zone to initiate Daylight Saving Time), on 1918 March 31 at 2:00 a.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) / 7:00 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), which, for the first time, became 3:00 a.m. Eastern Daylight Saving Time.

Internet Links to Additional Information ---

U.S. Daylight Saving Time:
Link 1 >>>
Link 2 (USA) >>>
Link 3 (U.S. law) >>>
Link 4 (Canada) >>>
Link 5 (World-Wide) >>>

Uniform Time Act of 1966: Link >>> 

Map - North American Time Zones:
Link >>>

Map of the time zones in the Eastern United States, when the State of Ohio was in 2 time zones (this map is posted on the bulletin board of the Allegheny Observatory Library):
Link >>>
(Image Source: Francis G. Graham, Professor Emeritus of Physics, Kent State University & former Planetarium & Observatory Lecturer at Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium & Institute of Popular Science)

Standard Time Act of 1918: Link >>>

Allegheny Observatory, Pittsburgh ---
Link 1 >>>
Link 2 >>>

Samuel Pierpont Langley: Link >>>
Photo of S.P. Langley:
Link >>>

Robert Garland: Link >>>

Related Blog Posts ---

"Centennial: Official Enactment of U.S. Time Zones & Daylight Saving Time."

2018 March 19.

Link >>>

"Some States to Abandon Daylight Saving Time ?" 2016 March 13.

Link >>>


"Centennial: New Allegheny Observatory Dedication." 2012 Aug. 28.

Link >>>


Source: Glenn A. Walsh Reporting for SpaceWatchtower, a project of Friends of the Zeiss.
             2018 March 31.

                             Like This Post? - Please Share!

            More Astronomy & Science News - SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed:
            Link >>>

        Astronomy & Science Links: Link >>>

                Want to receive SpaceWatchtower blog posts in your in-box ?
                Send request to < >.


Glenn A. Walsh, Project Director, Friends of the Zeiss: < >
& SpaceWatchtower Editor / Author: < >
Electronic Mail - < >
Astronomy Links: < >
Science Links: < >
SpaceWatchtower Twitter News Feed: < >
SpaceWatchtower Blog: < >
LibraryWatchtower Blog: < >
TransportWatchtower Blog: <  >
South Hills Backyard Astronomers Blog: < >
Barnestormin Blog: Writing, Essays, Pgh. News, etc.: < >
Author of History Web Sites on the Internet --
* Buhl Planetarium, Pittsburgh:
  < >
* Adler Planetarium, Chicago:
  < >
* Astronomer, Educator, Optician John A. Brashear:
  < >
* Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Libraries:
  < >
* Civil War Museum of Andrew Carnegie Free Library:
  < >
Duquesne Incline cable-car railway, Pittsburgh:
  < >
* Public Transit:
  < >


  1. هل تبحث عن شركة متخصصة فى خدمات التنظيف بالطائف بافضل المعدات والسوائل وثقة تمة فى العمل ودقة فى النتائج كل هذه المميزت توفرها شركة الخليج الشركة الافضل والامثل فى الخدمات المنزلية بالطائف وبما اننا الشركة الافضل والامثل بدون منافس سوف نسعى لتوفر افضل الخدمات باقل تكلفة وبقدر كبير من الاهتمام والدقة عزيزى اينما كنت فى اى منطقة ا وحى تابع لمدينة الطائف اتصل بنا وسوف نصلك فى الحال شركة الخليج للخدمات المنزلية شركة تنظيف منازل بالطائف
    شركة تنظيف فلل بالطائف
    شركة تنظيف خزانات بالطائف
    شركة تسليك مجارى بالطائف
    شركة رش مبيدات بالطائف
    شركة مكافحة نمل ابيض بالطائف
    شركة مكافحة حشرات بالطائف
    شركة عزل اسطح بالطائف
    شركة عزل خزانات بالطائف

    God bless you sir, I will not stop telling the world about your kindness in my life, I am a single mum with kids to look after. My name is Emily Thomas and I am from Convention Center Drive, Miami Beach, FL . A couple of weeks ago My friend visited me and along our discussion she told me about EDWARD JONES FINANCE, that they can help me out of my financial situation, I never believed cause I have spend so much money on different loan lenders who did nothing other than running away with my money. I have been in a financial mess for the pass 7 months now, She advised I give it a try so I mailed him and explain all about my financial situation to him, he therefore took me through the loan process and gave me a loan of $390,000.00 at a very low interest rate of 2% and today I am a proud business owner and can now take good care of my kids, If you must contact any firm to get any amount of loan you need with a low interest rate of 2% and better repayment schedule, please contact EDWARD JONES FINANCE email:- {} OR Text +1(307) 217-5388



    Our loans are well insured for maximum security is our priority, Our leading goal is to help you get the service you deserve, Our Loan program is the quickest. We give out loan in any currency of your choice {Us Dollar, pounds, Euro, Dinar, etc} and duration of 1 to 60 years to pay back the loan (secure and unsecured).

    Do you need any kind of loan and have low credit score, Have you find it difficult to get loans
    from local banks and other financial institutions? solution to your financial problem is PROSPER LOAN FIRM. The terms and conditions are very reasonable and considerate.

    We offer a wide range of financial services which includes: Xmas Loans, Business Loans, Debt Consolidation Loans, Personal Loans, Car loans, Hotel loans, Student loans, Home Refinancing Loans with low interest rate @2% per annul for individuals, companies and corporate bodies.

    Interested applicants should Contact us via email:
    OR call/text +1(816) 366-8769 . Apply and be free from financial bondage.

  4. Good-day, I'm Josef Lewis. A reputable, legitimate & accredited lender. We give out loan of all kinds in a very fast and easy way, Personal Loan, Car Loan, Home Loan, Student Loan, Business Loan, Inventor loan, Debt Consolidation. etc

    Get approved for a business or personal loans today and get funds within same week of application. These personal loans can be approved regardless of your credit and there are lots of happy customers to back up this claim. But you won’t only get the personal loan you need; you will get the cheapest one. This is our promise: We guarantee The lowest rate for all loans with free collateral benefits.

    We strive to leave a positive lasting impression by exceeding the expectations of my customers in everything I do. Our goal is to treat you with dignity and respect while providing the highest quality service in a timely manner. No social security Number required and no credit check required, 100% Guaranteed. Kindly respond immediately using the details below if interested in a loan and be free of scams..

    Call/Text +1(603) 786-7565 thanks

  5. Hello Everybody,
    My name is Mrs Sharon Sim. I live in Singapore and i am a happy woman today? and i told my self that any lender that rescue my family from our poor situation, i will refer any person that is looking for loan to him, he gave me happiness to me and my family, i was in need of a loan of $250,000.00 to start my life all over as i am a single mother with 3 kids I met this honest and GOD fearing man loan lender that help me with a loan of $250,000.00 SG. Dollar, he is a GOD fearing man, if you are in need of loan and you will pay back the loan please contact him tell him that is Mrs Sharon, that refer you to him. contact Dr Purva Pius,via email:( Thank you.

  6. I have being hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and i never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until one day i discovered a hacking group called dark web, they are really good at what they are doing. Back to the point, I inquired about The Blank ATM Card. If it works or even Exist. They told me Yes and that its a card programmed for random money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. This was shocking and i still had my doubts. Then i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to their terms and conditions. Hoping and praying . Few days later i received my card and tried with the closest ATM machine close to me, It worked like magic. I was able to withdraw up to $5,000. This was unbelievable and the happiest day of my life with my Family. So far i have being able to withdraw up to $50,000 without any stress of being caught. I don’t know why i am posting this here, i just felt this might help those of us in need of financial stability. email Mr Rex via

  7. It all happened as i stumbled into this email address initially i was looking to get extra jobs to boost my salary and i found how the blank ATM card from this company gives you more than $20,000 all in 1 month. At first i though it was another internet scheme until i saw several reviews of how this blank card from this company has changed the lives of many without hesitation i ordered for the card and in less than 7 days it was delivered to me and the agent showed me how it works and it was even tested its been just 3 weeks and everything seems a lot less stressful this company has really changed my life and standard of living. I would love you on this site to visit and get a card today to ease that stress and get good money its so quick.

    This is the happiest moment of my life having no longer to worry about paying bills as i have been settled for life. A lot has been said about atm hacking and blank card for cash withdrawal but it all seemed like a myth to me until i eventually lost my job few months back and the world seemed to be moving backwards. I went online in search of jobs and means to an end and there i found comments about blankatmdeliveryxpress and how they deliver this card in less than 7 days with no risk involved and a far much lesser price compared to what the card itself can give you, i then made contact and purchase one from them with almost my last dollars I took the risk and in exactly 6 days latter my card and a manual was delivered to my home address here in California and that same evening i used the card was able to take out $5000 for a start its been just 3 weeks and my life has taken a new shape. I simply want to say thank you to this electronic company and help spread their fame abroad. If you ever are in need of this card contact them via email
    Don't mail them if you not really ready for this card is gonna cost you money to buy the card note that,they offer card to firms, orphans,individual and business personnels mail them immediately .